Chapter 6: Life Processes Notes


Supplements are the substances that give energy and biomolecules important to completing the different body capabilities. All living creatures need supplements for working and development. In any case, they show differences in the way they satisfy this interest. A few creatures feed on straightforward inorganic mixtures to meet their supplement necessity, while others use complex mixtures. The method of nourishment fluctuates starting with one animal varieties then onto the next. There are two primary methods of nourishment, autotrophic and heterotrophic. Heterotrophic nourishment is available in microscopic organisms, growths, and creatures. They get energy from natural mixtures. For example, creatures eating plants or different creatures for food. Heterotrophic nourishment has subtypes, for example, holo-zoic, saprophytic, and parasitic sustenance. Autotrophic sustenance is available in plants, green growth, and a few microscopic organisms. Organic entities produce their own food utilizing light energy or substance energy by photosynthesis or chemosynthesis, individually.

Heterotrophic Nutrition

  • The method of nourishment where a creature takes food from another life form is called heterotrophic nutrition.
  • Life forms, other than autotrophs, follow the heterotrophic method of nourishment. These living beings straightforwardly or by implication rely upon autotrophs for food.
  • All creatures and non-photosynthetic plants are delegated heterotrophs since they can’t get ready food. So these creatures resort to other different types of nourishment.
  • Subsequently, according to a biological viewpoint, heterotrophs are dependably optional or tertiary purchasers in a pecking order.
  • For instance, practically every one of the creatures straightforwardly or by implication takes food from plants. Creatures that eat plants are called herbivores, while tissue-eating creatures are called carnivores
  • Heterotrophic nourishment can be additionally isolated into three kinds, viz. saprophytic nourishment, holo-zoic sustenance, and parasitic.
  • Life forms, other than green plants and blue-green growth follow the heterotrophic method of sustenance.

Parasitic Nutrition- The life form which lives inside or outside another organic entity (have) and gets sustenance from it is known as parasites and this sort of method of nourishment is called parasitic sustenance. For instance Cus-cuta, tick, and so on.

Saprophytic Nutrition- In saprophytic nourishment, the living being secretes the stomach-related juices on the food. The food is processed while it is still to be ingested. The processed food is then ingested by the life form. All the decomposers follow saprophytic nourishment. A few bugs, similar to houseflies, likewise follow this method of nourishment.

Holozoic Nutrition- In holo-zoic nourishment, absorption occurs inside the body of the creature. i.e., after the food is ingested. The greater part of the creatures follows this method of sustenance.

  • Holozoic Nutrition in Amoeba
  • One-celled critter shows holo-zoic nourishment. The cycle happens in the accompanying advances:
  • The single adaptable cell projects its pseudopodia and circles the food. It then immerses the food by the course of phagocytosis.
  • The food vacuoles of the single adaptable cells are wealthy in stomach-related proteins, which assist with breaking the food into easier substances. This interaction is known as processing.
  • The processed food is retained in the cytoplasm abandoning the undigested materials. This ingested food is used to create energy for the development and improvement of the cell.

Autotrophic Nutrition


Autotrophic nourishment is a cycle where a living being readies its own food from a straightforward inorganic material like water, mineral salts, and carbon dioxide within the sight of daylight.” at the end of the day, the course of photosynthesis is utilized to change over light energy into food like glucose. Such living beings are called autotrophs. The autotrophic living beings contain a green-shaded color called chlorophyll which helps in catching energy from the sun. They set up their own food by using sun-powered energy, water, and carbon dioxide over the course of photosynthesis. 

Models, Plants like blue-green growth and microbes, for example, cyanobacteria and so on. The autotrophic is additionally arranged into, two types, they are:

  • Chemosynthetic autotrophs
    • In Chemoautotrophic Nutrition The organic entity can cause their own food with the assistance of synthetic energy and they don’t require daylight.
    • The oxidation of compound substances, whether natural or inorganic, produces synthetic energy. Chemosynthetic microorganisms are significant in the reusing of supplements like nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and sulfur.
    • A model incorporates Nitrifying microorganisms, sulfur microbes, hydrogen microscopic organisms, and so forth.
  • Photosynthetic autotrophs
    • Photosynthetic autotrophs Plants that can deliver their food are called autotrophs. The strategy by which plants produce their own food is known as photosynthesis.
    • Photosynthesis is a strategy to change sunlight-based energy into compound energy to create starch.
    • The photosynthesis cycle happens for the most part in the leaves of the plant which are otherwise called the ‘kitchen of the plant’. In specific cases, even the stems can possibly do photosynthesis.
    • Various pieces of a plant assume various parts to finish photosynthesis.

Leaves – They are the food industrial facilities of the plant.

Stomata – It is available in the lower epidermis of the leaf which utilizes carbon dioxide CO2 from the air.

Roots  They assimilate minerals and water from the dirt and convey it to various pieces of the plant.

In desert-like environments, to stay away from water misfortune, watch cells keep these pores shut during the daytime. Afterward, during the evening time, stomata will be opened to retain carbon dioxide and store it in the vacuoles. During the daytime, they will utilize this put-away carbon dioxide to perform photosynthesis.

In plants, stomata are the openings on leaves where vaporous trade happens and is directed by watch cells. Plants take in and discharge gases through these stomatal pores.

Conceptual Questions

Question 1: Explain nutrients? 


Materials that give sustenance to living beings are called supplements. Sugars, proteins, and fats are the primary supplements and are called macronutrients. Minerals and nutrients are expected in limited quantities and consequently are called micronutrients.

Question 2: What is meant by autotrophic nutrition? 


It is a sort of nourishment wherein inorganic materials like CO2, water, and so on are used to plan natural food by the course of photosynthesis. The creatures that complete autotrophic sustenance are called autotrophs. Eg: Green plants. 

Question 3: Explain the types of holozoic organisms? 


  • Carnivores-These creatures feed on different creatures for their food. Lions, tigers, and panthers are carnivores.
  • Herbivores-These creatures rely on plants for their food. Cows, bison, deer, and elephants are herbivores.
  • Omnivores-These creatures can make due on either plants or creatures for their food. Cockroaches, pigs, chimpanzees, raccoons, and insects are a few instances of omnivores.

Question 4: Explain the stomata features? 


  • Stomata work with vaporous trade in the leaves with the end goal of photosynthesis.
  • The watchman cells enlarge when water streams into them, making the stomatal pore open. Correspondingly the pore closes on the off chance that the gatekeeper cells contract.
  • The opening and shutting of the stomatal pores are constrained by the watchman cells.

Question 5: Explain why nutrition is needed? 


Living beings need energy to perform different exercises. The energy is provided by the supplements. Living beings need different unrefined substances for development and fix. These unrefined components are given by supplements. Since the body of all living beings is made of carbon-based atoms, thus all life forms need food that contains carbon-based particles.

In general, photosynthesis is a process used by plants with green leaves, including mosses, long trees, algae, phytoplankton, and some bacteria. Here, plants absorb energy from the sun and use it to transform soil water and atmospheric carbon dioxide into glucose, and nutrition.

1Usually members of the plant kingdom and certain unicellular  organismsAll members of the animal kingdom
2These are producers who prepare their own food These are consumers who depend on others for food
3These are classified as photoautotrophsThese are classified as photoheterotrophs
4The chloroplast helps in preparing foodThey do not contain chloroplast, so can’t prepare food
5These store light energy and chemical energyThese cannot store energy

Nutrition in Human Being 

Supplements required in more modest sums, yet essential, are nutrients and minerals. Additionally on the rundown are fiber and water. Supplements are the substances in food that keep up with the body and make it work. The greater part of what one gobbles is comprised of sugars, proteins, and fats. Our eating routine ought to contain a blend of food varieties that supply all vital supplements in the perfect sums. Such an eating regimen is known as a fair eating regimen. We should have a brief look at sustenance in people.

Significant nutrients expected by the human body: are ; 

Vitamins and Minerals

Vitamins and Minerals are expected in minute sums and are fundamental for keeping areas of strength for a framework, constructing solid bones and muscles, and furthermore advancing ordinary development and improvement. Out and out, there are 13 fundamental nutrients and numerous minerals which are expected for the body to work appropriately and to keep up with the ideal wellbeing. The two nutrients and minerals join to perform many jobs in the body. Both people and creatures require nutrients for their development.

Vitamins are natural mixtures, found in regular food varieties which are expected for typical development and support of the body. 

Vitamins go about as an impetus in the age of energy by using sugars and fats appropriately. 

Vitamin can be found in significant food varieties example, meat, verdant vegetables, natural products, and so forth.

Minerals are additionally natural mixtures found in nature, which help in the development of the human body. Minerals are fundamental for the human body to appropriately work. 

Minerals likewise give us our imperative ness or at the end of the day, it very well may be contrasted with the battery that keeps us charged. They are known to keep up with the pH balance inside the body.

The pretended by minerals various. Mineral goes about as cofactors for compound responses since proteins won’t work without minerals and all cells expect chemicals to work. This is available in the example, toothpaste and drinking water to guarantee that you don’t get pits.


  • The human body all around planned which makes up of two sorts of fats, fundamental for the appropriate working of the body and are gotten from the food eaten.
  • These fats assume a significant part in controlling irritation, blood coagulation, and mental health. It likewise fills in as a stockpiling unit for putting away the body’s additional calories in fat cells or fat tissue that assists with protecting the body.
  • As per the nourishment realities, fats are characterized as the most fundamental piece of the eating regimen and it assumes a significant part in keeping up with a sound life.
  • Fat is processed into unsaturated fats, which are utilized as an energy source to make cell layers.
  • They might be remade into fat, under the skin, which protects the body and assists with keeping us warm.
  • Fats are the wellspring of energy in food, have a place with a gathering of components called lipids and they are blends of immersed and unsaturated fats.


After processing in the body, proteins supply the body with amino acids. These structure blocks are reassembled by cells into various proteins utilized for development like chemicals, and a heap of different jobs. A rich wellspring of protein is example, fish alongside lean meat, poultry, and beans.


  • Water is a valuable normal asset. All living things need water for their endurance. We can’t envision existence without water.
  • Allow it to be creatures or plants they expect water to finish their everyday metabolic exercises. Plants expect water to incorporate their food during the course of photosynthesis.
  • Water is the main medium through which every single fundamental supplement, nutrients, minerals, and different squander in the body are moved. Water likewise assumes a fundamental part in directing the internal heat levels.
  • There are different wellsprings of water. Around 97% of the water on the Earth’s surface is covered with water. The three principal wellsprings of water are:
    • Groundwater – This incorporates water bodies like Wells and Springs.
    • Surface water – This incorporates different water bodies like Sea, Oceans, Reservoirs, Rivers, Streams, Ponds, Lakes, and Tanks.


  • Carbohydrates are macronutrients and are one of the three primary ways by which our body acquires its energy. They are called starches as they include carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen at their synthetic level.
  • Carbs are fundamental supplements which incorporate sugars, strands and starches. They are tracked down in grains, vegetables, foods are grown from ground milk, and other dairy items. They are the essential nutritional categories which assume a significant part in a sound life.
  • The food containing starches is changed over into glucose or glucose during the course of processing by the stomach-related framework.
  • Basic carbs have a couple of sugar particles. In straightforward starches, particles are processed and changed over rapidly bringing about an ascent in the glucose levels.
  • They are tracked down in milk items, lager, organic products, refined sugars, confections, and so on. These starches are called void calories, as they don’t have fiber, nutrients, and minerals.
  • Complex carbs have at least two sugar particles, subsequently they are alluded to as bland food varieties. In complex carbs, particles are processed and changed over leisurely contrasted with basic starches.
  • They are found in example, lentils, beans, peanuts, potatoes, peas, corn, entire grain bread, cereals, and so forth.

Nourishment Tips for a Balanced Diet

Coming up next are some nourishment tips for a reasonable eating routine:

  • Remaining hydrated is significant, yet circulated air through drinks like cola is not the response. Improved drinks like bundled juices, chilled tea, and milkshakes ought to likewise be kept away from as they contain a fantastic measure of sugar and calories that are in overabundance of your body prerequisites.
  • Polishing off handled food sources and sweet beverages are connected to sleep deprivation, which is a state of restlessness. Food sources wealthy in melatonin and serotonin-like pecans, bananas are thought of as accommodating to forestall a sleeping disorder.
  • Stay away from food things that have unfortunate fat not required by your body. These food things incorporate dim meat, entire milk, spread, cheddar, poultry skin, etc. You can supplant dim meat or greasy meat with fish. Or possibly eliminate the skin of the chicken prior to cooking.
  • You ought to attempt to keep away from seared meat, rather than barbecue or cook it. These tips will assist you with keeping away from terrible cholesterol and coronary dangers. Plant oils and nuts are viewed as great fats in your eating routine and Hydrate in a day.
  • Calcium and Vitamin D are required by the body for good bone wellbeing and fast recuperation from wounds like cracks. Be that as it may, entire milk may not be the best approach. Eat a lot of products from the soil in a day with your feasts or as bites.
  • Unsweetened soy milk or almond milk, oranges, broccoli, kale, figs, blackberries and apricots are wealthy in these supplements significant towards great wellbeing.
  • Try not to drink cocktails, immersed fats, additives and substance added substances in your eating routine.
  • High fiber food things like earthy colored rice, entire grains, and products of the soil with their skin ought to be remembered for feasts. Limit the utilization of salt in your cooking as it can prompt hypertension.
  • Almonds, shellfish like mussels, clams and scallops, quinoa, flaxseed items, chia seed, pecans, and kidney beans are plentiful in numerous nutrients and minerals urgent to your eating regimen towards the proficient working of all your body frameworks.

Unsuitable Nutrition

  • Unfortunate sustenance or ailing health alludes to getting nearly nothing or a lot of the supplements for your body because of undereating or over-eating either in light of sad conditions like destitution, war, and mass starvation or completely out of carelessness and terrible dietary patterns like an uneven eating routine.
  • The hunger which can likewise be alluded to as unfortunate nourishment is a condition where an individual’s body is provided with the right equilibrium of all supplements expected for ideal wellbeing.
  • It is the lack of utilization of specific supplements that have prompted a sub-par diet. Basically, it is the lopsidedness of admission of energy through supplements in an individual.
  • This could be a result of a terrible way of life, yet additionally factors like food security and other financial and political variables.

Human Digestive System

Assimilation has been a significant method performed by the human body which gives energy by separating the huge food atoms into effectively absorbable particles to supply energy for different life processes. The total course of absorption occurs through a stepwise cycle which is normal for all living organic entities. Assimilation incorporates the accompanying cycles

  • Ingestion – It is the interaction people follow of ingesting the food by really eating it. In the mouth, the food material is likely to cut, tear, bite, and a smidgen of pre-processing utilizing the salivary juice and in the long run gulping it.
  • Retention – This is much of the time a basic stage in which the supplements are taken up from stomach related organs and circulated to the body’s tissues. This cycle is where food gulped is switched over completely to genuine energy to be utilized in human bodies.
  • Assimilation – It’s the breakdown of the ingested food into infinitesimal lastly atomic sections. The vast majority of the processing occurs in the stomach and a little piece of it likewise happens in the small digestive tract.
  • Discharge – This is the last cycle where squander material is discharged from our bodies.

Conceptual Questions

Question 1: Importance of nutrition in human beings? 


  • Undernutrition incorporates issues like low weight, little level, and low weight according to age.
  • Issue of being overweight, hefty, and die-related non-communicable illnesses (like coronary illness, stroke, diabetes, and a few diseases).
  • Can likewise cause Micronutrient related ailing health, which incorporates micronutrient inadequacies or deficiencies.

Question 2: What are the elements of carbohydrates?


  • The fundamental capability of carbs is to give energy and food to the body and to the sensory system.
  • Restrains the breakdown of proteins for energy as they are the essential wellspring of energy.
  • Carbs are otherwise called starch, basic sugars, complex carbs, etc.
  • It is likewise engaged with fat digestion and forest alls ketosis.
  • Carbs are known as one of the fundamental parts of food, including sugars, starch, and fiber which are plentifully tracked down in grains, foods grown from the ground items.

Question 3: Make sense of nutrients?


Nutrients are natural mixtures expected in little amounts. These are not delivered by the body in colossal sums and, consequently, need to come from food. These nutrients can be water-soluble or fat dissolvable. Water dissolvable nutrients can’t be put away by the body for a really long time. They are discharged in pee. Fat solvent nutrients are put away in the greasy tissues and liver. These can be put away in the body for a few days.

Question 4: What are the different types of Fat?


  • Polyunsaturated Fats
  • Trans Fats
  • Mono-unsaturated fats
  • Immersed Fat

Question 5: Make sense of the significance of water?


Homegrown Purposes incorporate washing, cleaning, cooking, drinking, washing, and Other Industrial Applications. Agrarian applications incorporate water systems, cultivating, planting, and ice control.

Question 6: The number of kinds of nutrients and their models?


Nutrients are of two kinds:

  • Fat-solvent – which are disintegrated in fat. Example-Vitamin A – Fat – Green verdant vegetables, ready yellow organic products, guava, milk, liver, nuts, tomatoes, oranges, carrots, broccoli, watermelon, and so forth.
  • Water-solvent – which are broken down in the water. Example- Vitamin C – Water – Fresh organic products, dark currant, broccoli, goat milk, and chestnuts.

What is Respiration?

Respiration is the process by which organisms exchange gases between the air around them and the cells in their bodies. All living organisms, from plants and animals to prokaryotic bacteria, Archaean’s, eukaryotic, protists, fungi, and animals respire.

Glucose reacts with oxygen during normal human respiration to produce the energy required for growth, repair, and movement. Water and carbon dioxide are waste products of respiration that must be eliminated. Respiration is a metabolic biochemical process that occurs in all living cells of an organism to produce energy through the intake of oxygen and the liberation of carbon dioxide from the oxidation of various organic substances. The energy produced is Adenosine-triphosphate, or ATP, also known as the energy molecule.

Types of Respiration

There are 2 types of Respiration are:
Phase of Respiration Cycle

Aerobic Respiration 

It is the process of producing energy from food through cellular respiration in the presence of oxygen gas. Aerobic respiration is the use of oxygen to break down glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids in order to produce ATP as byproducts of this process are water, and carbon dioxide is produced. For example, This type of respiration is found in the majority of plants and animals, including birds, humans, and other mammals.

Glucose (C6H12O6) + Oxygen (O2) ⇢ Carbon (CO2) + Water (H2O) + Energy (ATP)

Anaerobic Respiration

Due to a lack of oxygen, they respire in the absence of oxygen to produce the energy they require, which is known as anaerobic respiration. Our bodies require a lot of energy when we do heavy or intense exercises like running, sprinting, cycling, or weight lifting. Because the supply of oxygen is limited, our body’s muscle cells resort to anaerobic respiration to meet the energy demand. Anaerobic respiration, for example, is typically found in lower plants and microorganisms. The process occurs in a cell’s cytoplasm. This process’s chemical reaction is as follows:

Glucose (C6H12O6) ⇢ Alcohol 2(C2H5OH) + Energy (ATP )+ 2Co2

Phases of Respiration in Organisms

Cellular respiration occurs via a variety of metabolic pathways. In pk respiration takes place in the cytoplasm whereas in ek cell respiration starts in the cytoplasm and completes in mitochondria. Glucose is degraded into water, carbon dioxide, and a small amount of ATP. More ATP is produced later in a process known as oxidative phosphorylation, which is powered by electron transport chain movement. The following is a summary of the various stages of cellular respiration:



The process of converting glucose into pyruvic acid and producing ATP is known as glycolysis. It produces water, ATP, NADH, and two pyruvate molecules. Glycolysis is the first step in the process of cellular respiration, which occurs in all organisms. The Krebs cycle comes after glycolysis during aerobic respiration. In the absence of oxygen, cells produce small amounts of ATP through glycolysis, which is followed by fermentation.

Glucose molecules are converted into pyruvic acid, which is then oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, resulting in two carbon molecules known as acetyl-CoA. Two molecules of ATP and NADH are produced during the glycolysis process. In the Krebs cycle, pyruvate enters the inner matrix of mitochondria and undergoes oxidation.

 Pyruvate Oxidation 

All aerobic organisms use it to release stored energy by oxidizing acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP.) Each pyruvate molecule enters the mitochondrial matrix and is converted into a two-carbon molecule that is bound to Coenzyme A. Acetyl CoA refers to the entire compound. Carbon dioxide and NADH are the byproducts of this reaction. Acetyl-CoA then enters into the TCA cycle, whereas NADPH is used by ETC.

2 Pyruvate + 2NAD+ 2CoA⇢ 2 Acetyl-CoA+ 2NADPH +2H+ +2Co2

Krebs Cycle 

The Krebs Cycle is also referred to as the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle or the Citric Acid Cycle. It is the second stage of cellular respiration that takes place in the mitochondrial matrix. All the enzymes are water-soluble. It is an aerobic pathway because the electrons produced by NADH and FADH2 are transferred to the next pathway, which uses oxygen. No oxidation takes place if electrons are not transferred. During the process, 2 ATP is directly produced. The TCA cycle is a closed circuit. The pathway’s final step regenerates the pathway’s first molecule. The electrons generated in the Krebs cycle cross the mitochondrial matrix creating an electrochemical gradient.

Oxidative Phosphorylation

Oxidative Phosphorylation

The process via which ATP formation occurs that process is known as oxidative phosphorylationFADH2 and NADH generated in the Krebs cycle donate electrons to oxygen via various electron carriers via the electron transport chain. The reaction occurs in the mitochondrial matrix. As electrons move down the chain, energy is released, which is used to pump protons out of the matrix, forming a gradient.

Oxidative phosphorylation serves as the final stage of cellular respiration. It is linked to an electron transport chain process. The electron transport system is housed within the inner mitochondrial membrane. Through a series of redox reactions, electrons are transferred from one member of the transport chain to another.

FAQs on Respiration

Question 1: What is Respiration? 


Respiration is defined as a metabolic process in which an organism’s living cells obtain energy (in the form of ATP) by taking in oxygen and emitting carbon dioxide as a result of complex organic compounds being oxidized.

Question 2: What factors effects Respiration? 


These are the following factors on which the rate of restoration depends:

  • Temperature
  • Oxygen
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Salts
  • Age

Question 3: What are the two types of Respiration?


On the basis of the availability of oxygen respiration is classified into two types:

  • Aerobic Respiration
  • Anaerobic Respiration

Question 4: What Energy is used in Respiration? 


Registration is a process in which glucose is converted in other chemical organic substances form to produce ATP. The energy used here is chemical energy.

Mainly, our body has two types of fluids-

  • Intracellular Fluid– The fluid which is present inside the cell.
  • Extracellular Fluid– The fluid which is present outside the cell is known as extracellular fluid. Example ( blood, lymph, etc)

The circulatory system comprises two main components: the cardiovascular system and the lymphatic system. The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. The heart pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs to the rest of the body and returns deoxygenated blood back to the lungs for oxygenation. Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart, while veins transport deoxygenated blood toward the heart.


Blood is a fluid connective tissue composed of a fluid network, plasma, and blood cells. It makes up about 30-35% of the extracellular fluid. It is a slightly antacid liquid with a pH of 7.4. The main components of blood are: the elements form (erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes) and plasma (water, proteins, minerals) Plasma is a straw-colored viscous fluid that makes up 55% of blood volume. It contains 90-92% water, 6-8% proteins (fibrinogen, albumins, and globulins), glucose, amino acids, and a limited amount of minerals like Na+, Ca2+, Cl etc. Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and blood platelets form elements.

Red Blood Cells (RBCs)

Erythrocytes are the most abundant cells in the human body. The total number of red blood cells is between 5 and 5.5 million

  • Red platelets are round with a flattish, indented focus, similar to doughnuts without an opening. Your medical care supplier can keep an eye on the size, shape, and soundness of your red platelets utilizing a blood test.
  • Hemoglobin is the protein inside red platelets. It conveys oxygen. Red platelets likewise eliminate carbon dioxide from your body, carrying it to the lungs for you to breathe out.
  • Red platelets are made in the bone marrow. They commonly live for around 120 days, and afterward, they bite the dust.

WBC (White Blood Cells)

Leukocytes or white blood cells. There are 6000-8000 WBC in each ml. There are two types of leukocytes: granulocytes and agranulocytes. Both are classified according to the presence or absence of granules in the white blood cells.


Granulocytes are the most well-known type of white blood platelets. They contain chemical granules. The moment the contamination or aggravation enters the body, granulocytes rush to the area and release their granules to fight the disease. Granulocytes are sometimes referred to as granular leukocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, or PMNs.

There are three specific types of granulocytes. They are neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.

  • Neutrophils: Neutrophils are the most common type of granulocyte and attack microscopic organisms. Each neutrophil can swallow up to 20 microorganisms during its lifetime.
  • Eosinophils: These granulocytes are surprisingly sensitive in virtually every safe reaction. In any case, they also deter pests. 
  • Basophils: These granulocytes mainly fight unwanted reactions. They release the receptor (which carries the allergen out of the body) and the thinning blood heparin (which prevents it from thickening).

Function of Granulocytes

Granulocytes cooperate to free your collection of contamination or allergens. Each sort of granulocyte has its own mix of synthetics and proteins in its granules. Therefore, each type has an alternate capacity


Those that don’t have granules inside them are known as Agranulocyte. Monocytes and neutrophils are phagocytic cells, that destroy foreign organisms. 

  • Monocytes:Monocytes are one sort of agranulocyte. They are created in the bone marrow from monoblasts. Monoblasts are created from hematopoietic undifferentiated cells. 
  • Lymphocyte: Lymphocytes are one more sort of agranulocyte. They are additionally associated with battling specific diseases and destructive cells from the body. There are two sorts of lymphocytes in the body: T cells and B cells.

Functions of Agranulocytes

The capacity of agranulocytes is like that of granulocytes in that they intercede immunological reactions to unfamiliar microbes, harmful and cancer cells, and eliminate dead cells from the body. They do this by delivering antibodies and straightforwardly appending them to cells, as opposed to delivering granules.

Also Read: Difference between Granulocytes and Agranulocytes

Blood Platelets

Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small, colorless, disc-shaped cell fragments that circulate in the blood. They play a crucial role in hemostasis, the process of stopping bleeding and forming blood clots to repair damaged blood vessels.

Blood Groups

The most well-known blood group system is the ABO system, which categorizes blood into four main types: A, B, AB, and O.

  • Blood Type A: People with blood type A have A antigens on the surface of their red blood cells and produce antibodies against type B antigens in their plasma. They can receive blood from individuals with blood types A and O (with A being preferable) and can donate blood to individuals with blood types A and AB.
  • Blood Type B: Individuals with blood type B have B antigens on the surface of their red blood cells and produce antibodies against type A antigens in their plasma. They can receive blood from individuals with blood types B and O (with B being preferable) and can donate blood to individuals with blood types B and AB.
  • Blood Type AB: People with blood type AB have both A and B antigens on the surface of their red blood cells but do not produce antibodies against either A or B antigens in their plasma. They can receive blood from individuals with all blood types (A, B, AB, and O), making them universal recipients. However, they can only donate blood to individuals with blood type AB.
  • Blood Type O: Individuals with blood type O have neither A nor B antigens on the surface of their red blood cells but produce antibodies against both A and B antigens in their plasma. They are considered universal donors because their blood can be given to individuals with any blood type (A, B, AB, and O). However, people with blood type O can only receive blood from individuals with blood type O.

Rh System

Another important blood group system is the Rh system, which classifies blood into Rh-positive (+) or Rh-negative (-) based on the presence or absence of the Rh antigen on RBCs. Rh-positive individuals have the Rh antigen, while Rh-negative individuals lack it. Rh-positive blood can be given to Rh-positive and Rh-negative individuals, but Rh-negative blood should only be given to Rh-negative individuals.

Coagulation of Blood

It is a remarkable defense mechanism that prevents excessive bleeding when blood vessels are damaged. Understanding the intricacies of blood coagulation is essential for grasping the body’s remarkable ability to control and heal wounds effectively.

Events During Blood Clotting (Blood Coagulation)

How Does Fluid Move Around the Body?

Water travels through semi-permeable layers of cells and starts with one compartment of the body and then onto the next by a cycle called assimilation. Assimilation is fundamentally the dissemination of water from districts of higher fixation to locales of lower focus, along an osmotic inclination across a semipermeable membrane. 


Lymph is a clear-to-white fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system, a network of vessels, nodes, and organs that complements the circulatory system. Lymph plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance, immune function, and the transportation of nutrients and waste products within the body.

Lymphatic System

The lymphatic framework is a broad organization of vessels, hubs, and pipes that pass through practically all substantial tissues. It permits the flow of a liquid called lymph through the body, likewise as blood. They help in absorbing the food from the intestine, maintain the fluid levels, and provide immunity.

Human Circulatory System


The heart is roughly the size of a clenched fist and is divided into four chambers: two atria (the left atrium and right atrium) and two ventricles (the left ventricle and right ventricle). The atria receive blood returning to the heart, while the ventricles pump blood out of the heart.

Structure of Human Heart

Function of Heart

The heart’s primary function is to circulate blood throughout the body. It acts as a pump, contracting rhythmically to propel blood into the blood vessels. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs for oxygenation, while the left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it to the rest of the body.

Heart Valves

To maintain proper blood flow, the heart has four valves that ensure unidirectional blood flow through the chambers. The valves are the tricuspid valve (between the right atrium and right ventricle), the pulmonary valve (between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery), the mitral valve (between the left atrium and left ventricle), and the aortic valve (between the left ventricle and aorta). These valves open and close in response to pressure changes, preventing backflow of blood.

Electrical Conduction 

The heart has its own electrical conduction system that coordinates its contractions. The sinoatrial (SA) node, located in the right atrium, initiates the electrical impulses that regulate the heartbeat. The impulses then travel through the atria, causing them to contract. The impulses then pass through the atrioventricular (AV) node, located between the atria and ventricles, and continue down the specialized pathways called the bundle of His and Purkinje fibers, stimulating the ventricles to contract.

Double Circulation

Double circulation is a specialized cardiovascular system found in mammals and birds, including humans, that involves the circulation of blood through two separate circuits. This unique system allows for the efficient delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the body’s tissues while maintaining a high level of oxygenation in the blood. 

Blood Flow

Systemic and Pulmonary Circulation

Cardiac Cycle and ECG

The cardiac cycle refers to the sequence of events that occur during one complete heartbeat. It includes diastole (relaxation phase) and systole (contraction phase) of both the atria and ventricles. During diastole, the heart chambers fill with blood, and during systole, the chambers contract, pumping blood out of the heart.

ECG stands for electrocardiogram. It is a non-invasive medical test that records the electrical activity of the heart. The test involves placing electrodes on the skin of the chest, arms, and legs, which detect and measure the electrical signals generated by the heart.

Regulation of Cardiac Activity

The regulation of cardiac activity is a complex process that ensures the heart functions efficiently, adapting to the body’s needs. This intricate system involves a combination of intrinsic mechanisms within the heart itself and extrinsic influences from the nervous and endocrine systems. 

Cardiac Disorders

Cardiovascular infections are conditions that influence the capacity of your heart, for example,

  • Unusual heart rhythms
  • Aorta sickness 
  • Innate coronary illness
  • Coronary conduit sickness
  • Cardiovascular breakdown
  • Heart muscle sickness (cardiomyopathy)
  • Heart valve sickness
  • Heart failure

FAQs on Body Fluids and Circulation

Q1: Which Cell is Known as Policemen of Blood? 


Monocytes are the macro policeman of blood and phagocytic in nature.

Q2: Where are the RBCs Formed in the Human Body? 


The bone marrow produces RBCs. 

Q3: Which Respiratory Pigment is found in the RBCs? 


Haemoglobin is found in the RBCs. 

Q4: What is the Lifespan of RBCs?


RBCs live for around 120 days. 

Plants are very important for our daily needs. Plants give oxygen because of photosynthesis by taking carbon dioxide that we release this is why plants are important for our living process. The plant is the first living organism on the earth. One living organism that is in every part of the earth is a plant. A plant can grow everywhere on earth. There are two types of plants. They are

  • Flowering plants
  • Non-flowering plants 

Flowering plants: 

Flowering plants have features like plants in which flowers of the tree become fruit and also in that fruit seed is generated. The generated seed becomes a plant when we sow it in the soil. Flowering plants are commonly known as angiosperms. Like, humans, have reproductive systems plants have a reproductive system called angiosperms. Because of this system they can able to generate flowers as fruits that are used to consume humans.

There are many flowering plants on this earth. Some of them are
  • Bougainvillea
  • Rose
  • Adenium
  • Adenium
  • Angelonia
  • Kalanchoe

Some flowering plants have normal names having scientific names are tabled below

Flowering plantsScientific name of flowering plant
Water LiliesNymphaea
LotusNelumbo Nucifera Gaertn

Nonflowering plants

Nonflowering plants are in contrast to flowering plants. Nonflowering plants have features like plants in which there are no flowers for those types of plants and also there are only leaves this type of plant. Plants like grass, herbs, and decorative plants are non-flowering plants. Nonflowering plants don’t have seed in it. Non flowering plants are also known as cryptogams.

There are many nonflowering plants on this earth. some of them are

  • Pines
  • Horsetails
  • Common moss
  • Seaweed

Some non-flowering plants have normal names having scientific names are tabled below

Non-flowering plantsScientific name of non flowering plants 
PinesPinus roxburghii
Common mossBryophyta

Transportation in Plants

Plants make their food themselves. How they will make their own food themselves? Plants take carbon dioxide, sunlight, and water used in the process called photosynthesis. In photosynthesis oxygen and some sugars came out as outputs. Oxygen is released into the environment whereas sugars are consumed by the plants to grow themselves. this how plants make food by themselves. Plants are also called autotrophs because they make their own food.

Human transports food from mouth to stomach and from stomach to intestine, finally, it came out as a solid material. Like humans, plants have a systematic transport system through a network of tissues of the plant. We have to know the structure of a plant before going to know how transportation occurs. Plant is the combination of roots, stem and leaves. Nutrients in water are absorbed by the roots of the plant and transports those nutrients to the stem and leaves. Leaves are the main food chefs of the plant. Leaves prepared food through the photosynthesis process. Let us know what is photosynthesis process?

Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis is a plant phenomenon in which plants take nutrients from the roots, carbon dioxide, and sunlight from the leaves to produce oxygen and glucose. Glucose is consumed by the plant itself whereas oxygen is released outside for humans.

Carbon dioxide + Water + Sunlight ⇒ Glucose+ Oxygen

Due to photosynthesis end product glucose need to transport to every part of the plant. How transportation to every part occurs can be known by the concept of vascular tissue. Because vascular tissue is the main tissue used for the transportation of each nutrient as well as the glucose for the transportation in the plant.

Vascular tissue: Vascular tissue is the combination of xylem and phloem. Xylem is one type of tissue in plants where it is present in the entire part of the plant. Phloem is also a one of the types of tissue in plant-like xylem. Phloem is also present thought the plant. Xylem tissue supplies water and minerals from the roots of the plant to the leaves of the plant. Phloem tissue supplies food which is glucose from leaves to another part of the plant-like stem, branches, and roots of the plant. This is how xylem and phloem helps in transportation.


Xylem is one of the tissues used for transporting from roots to the leaves through steam. Water that transports from the root is processed by osmosis and then it reaches to xylem tissue. Water that reaches the xylem is transported to leaves and from leaves, it is evaporated by the transpiration method. Xylem process is bottom to up because it takes water, and nutrients in the water from roots to all the parts of a plant.


Phloem is one of the tissues used for transporting nutrients, carbohydrates, and sugars from leaves to all the body parts of the plant. Phloem cells are made of living cells. The phloem approach is from top to down approach because this tissue supplies food that is prepared by leaves to all the parts like stem, branches, and roots.

How does water get out from the plants?

Transpiration is the process of exhalation of water from the leaves . During evaporation of water from the leaves, water is get pulled from the roots. This happens due to gravity without using any pipe. Flow of the xylem has one direction which is unidirectional. Like water, phloem transports carbon dioxide and amino acids from leaves to other areas of plants. Phloem is bidirectional tissue because of this property elements like CO2, amino acids are moved up and down in the stem of the plant. In vascular tissue, the phloem occupies the edge where as the xylem occupies the center. Mechanism of food movement in phloem happened due to pressure.

Means of Transport

To sustain the plant kingdom diffusion is one of the means of transport that is like a natural phenomenon. For all the essential needs of plants, diffusion can transport all the needed material to the plants.


Diffusion is the process that transfers the molecule’s movement from a high concentration place to a low concentration place. In photosynthesis process diffusion takes main role for the process. Plant takes carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide goes to stomata then to the leaves and finally goes into the cells is done by a diffusion process. Types of diffusion: Simple and Facilitated Diffusion

  • Simple diffusion-diffusion of ions occurs without the aid of any carrier, movement occurred via a concentration gradient.
  • Facilitated diffusion-ions move with the aid of a carrier then that movement of ions is known as facilitated diffusion.

Conceptual Questions

Question 1: What is osmosis. Explain?


Osmosis is also known as diffusion. This Osmosis is useful for plants. Osmosis is a process to stabilize the internal environment of a using water and internal fluids in the plant. It is used by the xylem for the transportation of water from roots to every other part of the plant. Without Osmosis plants cannot survive.

Question 2: Difference between xylem and phloem.


 It is located in a leaf at adaxial surfacePhloem is located in a leaf at abaxial surface
Xylem carries water and minerals form roots to every part of the plant.Phloem carries food of plant which is carbohydrates and some sugars.
It is formed with dead cells which are vessel cells so xylem is not a living tissue. Phloem is formed with live elements naturally for the food transportation.

Question 3. Difference between transpiration and  guttation.


Transpiration Guttation
Transpiration is a process of evaporating water from the leaves.Guttation is a process of secretion or coming out the droplets from the pores of the plant.
This process is done in daytime.It is done during night time only.
Transpiration is controlled method which will done regularly.Guttation is uncontrolled method.

Question 4: Without diffusion is it possible for xylem to transport water supplements? Explain.


Without diffusion, there is no possible transportation of water supplement to the xylem and to the plants as well. Because of diffusion bridge water that taken by root is transported to xylem. After water reaching to xylem only xylem supplies water to all parts of the body of a plant.

Question 5. Name the tissues in plants that help process the supplements to all parts of the tree?


Xylem and phloem are the two tissues that helps in the process of supplying all the supplement to all the parts of the tree. Xylem supplies water and minerals with the help of diffusion from roots to every part of the plant, where as phloem supplies food resources like carbohydrates, sugars prepared by leaves using photosynthesis to all parts of the plant.

Question 6. In a drought area how plants can able to survive? Explain.


Panicle Hydrangea, Cactus, and Aloe vera are some of the plants which able to face drought area conditions. These plants are related to one of the plant genes that stores more water than they can during water content. Transpiration for this plants are very less compared to other plants like rose, lilly etc., So these type of plants use their storage water in summer for survive purpose in drought areas.

Excretion in Humans

Human Excretory System is a complete set of organs & tubes. All of them together make a complete mechanism to throw out the waste materials outside of the body. Though human body can able to excrete waste material in some other forms also. Like the means of the sweet, some waste materials can remove from the body. But the amount of waste removed from the body by the sweet is very less. Whereas by the largest excretory system, a huge amount of waste can be removed at a time.

It is very normal to create a waste product in the human body. Whatever we intake as food or drink, create waste product inside the body. They store in the cells. Also, there are some other important processes executed inside the body. These create waste products also. All the waste product needs to be removed. So, they have to store in the cell & at last, they are removed from the body.

Excretory System Organs

The human excretory system is a complete set of organs. There are many organs present that make the process easy. These organs together make the system a complicated one. There are the below-mentioned organs:
  • Two sets of Kidneys
  • Two sets of Ureters
  • One Urinary Bladder
  • One Urethra


Kidneys are the most important organ in the excretory system. It is a red bean shape structure present on both sides of the backbone. The normal size of a kidney is 10-12 cm, the width of 5-7 cm, and the weight is approx 120-170g. There are excreted materials produced. Kidneys have a hard outer layer. This is known as the Capsule. The Capsule can further be divided into two major parts.

Anatomy of Kidney
  • Cortex: This is the outermost layer of the kidney. This is completely made with connective tissues. There is a salt concentration than in the other areas of the kidney. Nephrons are the functional unit of the kidney. The part of the nephron lies in the cortex area. The Renal Capsule, Proximal Convoluted Tubule & Distal Convoluted Tubules are present in this part.
  • Medulla: This is the inner part of the kidneys. Their pyramid-like structures are present. This place is a high-concentration area inside the kidney. Only the Henle’s Loop of the nephron is present there. As Henle’s Loop can able to reabsorb the salt. That is why this part has a high salt concentration. Also, the collecting ducts of the Nephron are present there. All the collecting ducts merge there & make a large collecting tube there.
Structure of Nephron


The outermost layer of the kidney is known as the capsule. It is hard in nature made up of stromal cells surrounded by connective tissue. It plays an important role in the development of kidneys.


The functional unit of the Kidney has some anatomical structure there. This can be divided into some parts. This is responsible to reabsorb, secrete, and filtration of the waste product inside the kidneys. These units all together perform the production of the waste product.

  • Glomerulus: It is the ball of tiny blood vessels. The small blood vessels come together & make a network of blood vessels there. The Afferent blood vessels & Efferent blood vessels make this network. In this way, the polluted blood comes to the nephron inside the kidney. It filters the blood & makes fresh blood. Then it comes out from the nephron.
  • Bowman’s Capsule: This is the free space in the nephron. The Glomerulus is surrounded by the Bowman’s Capsule. There are three layers. All of them are made with epithelium layers. In those layers, there are small pores. This help to move forward those waste substances inside of the nephrons for further process.
  • Proximal Convoluted Tubules: This is the first tube-like structure in the nephron. This tube is not linear. This means there are some loops present. These loops happen as there is a large length of the tube is convoluted there. In this part, the reabsorb of the important substances occurs.
  • Henle’s Loop: This is also a tube-like structure. There are two arms in this loop. One is ascending arm & another is descending arm. This area is also performed re-absorption. Water & salt are being reabsorbed here.
  • Distal Convoluted Tubules: This is another part of the Nephron. This is also convoluted like the proximal convoluted tubules. Here, the secretion of some hormones & other substances is performed.

Types of Nephrons

Nephrons can be divided into two categories as per their size & location. As the Nephrons are situated in the Kidney, so there are two locations in the Kidney where the Nephrons can be located. The types are:

  • Cortical Nephron: This is the main type of Nephron present in the human body. Nearly 80% of Nephrons fall under this category. This type of Nephron is mainly located in the Cortex of the Kidney. The maximum parts of the Nephron belong to the Cortex area of the Kidney. From the location of the Nephron, it is called the Cortical Nephron.
  • Juxtamedullary Nephron: This is another type of Nephron. This type of Nephrons can be found small in amount. Nearly 20% of Nephrons fall under this category. Here, the Nephrons are mainly located inside the Medulla area of the kidney. So, as per the location of the Nephron, the name is allocated. They are small in size also.


It is a thin tube-like structure. This comes out from the kidney by a special location, called Renal Pelvis. This helps to move the urine to the urinary bladder. This is made with small tissues. There are two ureters in the human body.

Urinary Bladder

This is the sac-like organ present in the human body. This helps to store the urine inside of it for a while. The capacity of the bladder is 500ml of urine. The bladder can be divided into two parts, they are the upper part & lower part. In the lower part, there is the neck. From the neck, the Urethra is attached to this area. The bladder is situated in the pelvic cavity of the human body.


This is the muscular tube present after the urinary bladder. It helps to remove both the urine & the sperm. It is a long tube that opens nearly the prostate gland. Then it helps to remove the urine produced in the kidney. There is a Sphincter muscle in the urethra. This helps to guard the opening of the urethra. It helps to regulate the removal of urine.

Diagram of Human Excretory System

Diagram of Human Excretory System

Urine Formation

The kidney is the major organ that performs the main function of urine formation. Inside the Glomerulus, due to the large pressure of the blood, waste products come inside the nephron. It then stores in the Bowman’s Capsule for a while. Then the fresh blood comes out from the nephron or the kidney. 

Inside the Glomerulus, the filtration process is completed. After that, the waste product is stored inside the Bowman’s Capsule. After that, it comes to the proximal convoluted tubules. There the reabsorption process takes place. This means from there some substances like Glucose, Water, etc are get reabsorbed. These will again move to the blood. There is a blood capillary close to the Proximal Convoluted Tubules. This will help to make the substances available there.

Then insides of Henle’s Loop more reabsorption takes place. There are two different types of reabsorption takes place. In the ascending limb of Henle’s Loop, the water is reabsorbed. But in the descending limb, water doesn’t reabsorb. At last, in the Distal Convoluted Tubules, the secretion process takes place. With the help of the secretion process, some more waste products like Uria, Uric Acid, and Ammonia removes from the body.

Then the produced urine will come out from the renal pelvis of the kidney. Then it moves forward with the help of the Ureters & comes to the Urinary Bladder. Inside the bladder, the urine is stored for a certain amount of time. When the stored urine goes beyond the capacity of the bladder, it removes from the body. The removal of urine can take place with the help of the Urethra.

Functions of Human Excretory System

The main function of the excretory system is to produce urine or waste material. The process of the production of the water material is mainly inside the kidney. Also, some more functions are being served by the urinary bladder.


The Nephrons are the functional unit of the kidney. The polluted blood comes to the nephron by the Afferent blood vessel in the Glomerulus. Thereby the help of the filtration process those waste materials come inside the nephrons. The fresh blood then returns to the body by the efferent blood vessels. The filtration process is completed by the high blood pressure inside the Glomerulus. Then those waste products are stored for some time inside the Bowman’s capsule.

Then the waste product comes inside the proximal convoluted tubules. There the reabsorption takes place. Some important substances are present in those waste products. As the filtration can’t able to efficiently pick only the waste product. So, reabsorption takes place. Here, NaCl, Glucose, Water, etc. gets reabsorbed.

In Henle’s Loop reabsorption also occur. There in the ascending limb of Henle’s Loop, Sodium, Potassium, and Magnesium ions are gets reabsorbed. In the descending loop, only the water & salt can be reabsorbed.

At last, inside the Distal Convoluted Tubule, the secretion takes place. These harmful substances like Uria, Uric acid are secreted. Hence the urine is produced finally. Then they come together to the collecting duct. There they all mixed up & come out from the kidney by the renal pelvis.


Here, the urine which is produced by the kidney moves to the urinary bladder. The only function of the Ureter is to carry the urine to the bladder.

Urinary Bladder

The main function of the Urinary Bladder is to store urine there. The receptors which are present on the walls of the Bladder send the signal to the Central Nervous System. It is then stretched & stores the urine inside it. Again, it receives the signal from the central nervous system & charges out the urine. This process is known as Micturition.


This helps to finally throw out the urine outside of the body. Not only urine but is also used to eject sperm outside of the body. This is used as the common route. The sphincter muscle regulates the amount of urine that needs to be thrown out of the body. It is also controlled by the central nervous system.

Disorder of Human Excretory System

Following are the disorders which are related to the human excretory system are:

  • Renal Failure: In this disease, the filtration process of the Glomerulus is affected mostly. As the kidney can’t able to filter the blood, the production of urine hampers. In severe conditions, both kidneys may get failed.
  • Renal Caliculi: This is the disorder commonly known as Kidney Stone. There create some stones inside the kidney with the help of insoluble salts. And they get stuck inside the kidney walls. This creates a large size kidney. When that pass, patients feel immense pain.
  • Nephritis: This is also known as the Bright Diseases. In this case, there is inflammation of the kidney. Due to a disorder of the nephron. Some parts of the nephron start malfunctioning. This creates a problem. The inflammation of the Glomerulus can also cause this. In some cases, artificial kidneys are the only way to survive.
Disorder of Human Excretory System

Dialysis Process

Process of Dialysis

As the kidney is not responding, the excretory of the body will stop. This causes a poisoning state of the body. Many substances like Uria, Uric Acid, and Ammonia need to remove from the body within a proper interval. If this doesn’t happen repeatedly those substances are stored in the cells of the body. This creates a lot of trouble in the body.

Dialysis is needed when the kidney is severely damaged. Due to any disorder of the kidney, when it can’t able to execute the tasks then Dialysis is highly needed. After a kidney stone, if the disease is not sorted out immediately. It can lead to kidney failure in the future. So, without any delay, patients need to take care of their kidneys.

Regulation of Human Excretory System

If a kidney is damaged & can only able to work 15% or less than that, then dialysis is needed for that patient. There are mainly two types of dialysis present. one is for the routine patient. Another is for the scheduled patients. Routine patients need to come to the hospital or a specific location for dialysis purposes. But the scheduled patients need to do the dialysis at their own homes. As the dialysis process for them is quite easier than that of routine patients.

Here, a machine is attached to the body. It is the same as the kidney in our body. There are two transporters in the machine. One helps to deliver the polluted blood of the body to the machine. Inside the machine, the blood gets purified. All the waste products are gets filtered in the machine. Then the purified blood comes into the body of the patient again. This process is being done at some intervals. After every particular second, the blood needs to be again purified. In a single day, a human body can produce 32 ounces of waste product & water from its blood.

Importance of Human Excretory System

  • Time by time, the body gets infected with waste which is removed by the human excretion system.
  • Some poisons may arise inside the body if the waste product is stored for a long time. The removal of waste products is very important. 
  • If the waste can not be thrown out outside of the body, then it will directly affect health.
  • Human urine is the way, by which a large amount of waste can be thrown out.

FAQs on Human Excretion System

Q1. What is Dialysis?


Dialysis is the process by which the function of the kidney can be performed artificially. The kidney purifies the blood by draining out the waste products. In the dialysis machine, the blood goes to the machine & gets purified artificially. This is done when there is a disorder with the kidney.

Q2. In a single day how many times, does the blood get filtered by the kidney?


The kidney can purify the blood. In a single day, nearly 400 times the kidney can purify the blood. It is a very necessary process. In a single second, a good amount of waste is being created inside the body.

Q3. Urinary Bladder can store what amount of urine at a time?


At a single time, Urinary Bladder can store up to 500ml of urine there. After storing that amount of urine there, it sends the signal to the central nervous system. This helps to empty the bladder from time to time. This helps to make the circle better.

Q4. Why does the medulla of the kidney have a high salt concentration?


The Henle’s Loop of the nephron is located inside the medulla portion. Only the Henle’s Loop is responsible for reabsorbing the salt from the mixture. After reabsorbing the salt, it stores them inside the medulla pyramid. Hence, there is a large salt concentration other than any other part of the kidney.

Excretion in Plants

The body eliminates the waste material throughout the body is known as excretion. In animals, a well-developed system is developed for excretion. But in plants, the excretion system is not that complex, because they don’t have any special system or organ for the excretion as the animal does.

Organs Used During Excretion in Plants

Plants have no specific organs for removing waste. The course of discharge in plants takes through plant parts like leaves, roots, stems, maturing tissues, barks, etc. Plants generate waste material during photosynthesis.

Excretory Products

During photosynthesis, cellular respiration, or other metabolic activities produce so much metabolic waste in the plants. Like Carbon dioxide, a nitrogenous product is produced during protein metabolism, and extra water is produced during transpiration. These are the primary excretory products produced in plants. 

Plants produce 2 waste gas products those are Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide. Oxygen is produced during photosynthesis and Carbon dioxide is produced during respiration. Both gases are excreted out from the plant with the help of stomata present over the surface of the leaf. Some plants do photorespiration in which they take oxygen and release CO2. 

Excretory Products

The excess water is exerted via the process known as transpiration. It is the deficiency of water drops from the outer layer of the plant, for the most part from the leaves. This deficiency of water gets water up through the xylem. Following are the different types of transpiration:

  • Stomatal Transpiration: The deficiency of water from leaves through stomata.
  • Cuticular Transpiration: The deficiency of water through the fingernail skin of a leaf.
  • Lenticular Transpiration: The deficiency of water from lenticels-minute openings on the stem.

Guttation: The deficiency of water as water beads from the hydathodes of plants are called guttation. In a few herbaceous plants, water beads overflow out through their leaf edges. At the point when the root pressure is high and transpiration is low, water overflow out through extraordinary peripheral designs called Hydathodes or Stomata. These drops are plentiful in mineral salts, natural acids, carbohydrates, and nitrogenous mixtures. Guttation should be visible in garden nasturtium, grasses, tomatoes, potatoes, and colocasia.

Following are the excretory products of plants useful for humans:

  • Oxygen: During Photosynthesis oxygen is excrete out form plants which is respire via humans and other animals.
  • Tannins:  Tannins tracked down in the bark and leaves. The presence of tannin in tea leaves makes tea taste severe in the event that the tea leaves are bubbled for a more extended time duration.
  • Gums and Resins: Resins and gums are the side effects that are delivered by plants that are fundamentally put away in maturing or old xylem. Pitches present in the stem of the pine tree make the pinewood solid and strong. Saps are additionally utilized for planning stains.
  • Discharge of Minerals: Plants dispense with the abundance of minerals and salt as gems, for example, calcium carbonate, sodium oxalate precious stones, and so on. The plant tissue phloem is liable for moving minerals and water from the dirt to the upper tissues of the plant. The leaves use the number of minerals they expect while the rest are killed

 How Plants Reuse the Waste Products of Respiration

  • As a origijn of energy for metabolic cycles
  • As a origin of nitrogen for the union of nitrogenous mixtures
  • As a reactant in photosynthesis
  • As a protecting gas to direct temperature

FAQs on Excretion In Plants

Q1: What are excretory products in plants?


Following are the excretory products in plants are:

  • Solid Wate include raphides and rubber
  • Liquid waste include sandalwood oil, clove oil
  • Gaseous waste include CO2 and O2

Q2: What is excretion by roots of plants?


Roots of plants exrete following substance: Amino acids, Sugars, Organic compounds etc.

Q3: What is role of leaf in excretion?


Leaf plays the primary role in exretion of gaseous waste products. Carbon dioxide and Oxygen is exrete out via stomat present on the surface of leaf.

Q4: What is excretion in plant and animals?


Exretion is the normal life process in which waste material is exerted out from the cell or organism. Such waste is produced because of the cellular process.

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