Chapter 8: How do Organisms Reproduce Notes

What is Asexual Reproduction?

Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction where an organism can produce offspring without the involvement of a mate or another organism. In asexual reproduction, the offspring are genetically identical to the parent, as there is no exchange of genetic material between individuals. Asexual reproduction is normally seen in unicellular organisms. Only a single parent is divided into 2 clone cells known as daughter cells. 

Characteristics of Asexual Reproduction in Animals

  • No gamete production or fertilization.
  • single parent is involved, i.e. mother cell.
  • It takes comparatively less time than sexual reproduction.
  • No variety, the children generated are the replicas/clones of the parent.
  • Offspring develops at a very high rate.

Asexual Reproduction Examples

In different ways, asexual reproduction can occur. Fission, fragmentation, and budding are seen in microorganisms like amoeba, hydra, and worms. Vegetative propagation and spore development are observed in plants, algae, and fungi.

Binary Fission

In Binary Fission, a parent cell splits into two or more individuals of almost equal size which are identical to the mother cell each of them having a nucleus and equal genetic material. Examples are bacteria, archaebacteria, unicellular eukaryotes like protists, and some fungi.
Binary Fission


In Fragmentation, the body is divided into many fragments, which eventually evolve into whole creatures. Examples: Planaria, Worms, Fungi, Plants, and Starfish.

Fragmentation in Planaria


In budding, a bud-like outgrowth develops on the parent body, which is similar to the parent organism. Organisms reproduce by splitting off new individuals from existing ones through budding and resulting in genetically identical parent and daughter organisms. The bud may remain linked, or it may break loose through the parent. Budding generally occurs in eukaryotic species such as single-celled yeast and multicellular Hydra.


Budding In Hydra

Vegetative Propagation

In plants, Asexual reproduction occurs through their vegetative parts such as leaves, roots, stems, and buds, this type of reproduction is called vegetative propagation. For example, runners/stolon, potato tubers, onion bulbs, etc. shows vegetative propagation.


Grafting, type of Vegetative Propagation

Spore Formation

Spore formation is one of the types of asexual reproduction in plants. In harsh or unfavorable conditions, the organism develops ball-like sac structures called sporangium that contain spores. In favorable conditions, the sporangium burst open (air/water), and spores are released into the surrounding that germinates to give rise to the new organisms. Example fungus-like Bread Mould.

Spore Formation

Advantages of Asexual Reproduction

The following are the advantages of asexual reproduction:

  • Mates/Partners are not required.
  • The reproduction process is fast.
  • Numerous organisms can be produced in a short time.
  • Positive genetic influences are passed on to successive generations.
  • It occurs in all kinds of environments.

Disadvantages of Asexual Reproduction

The major disadvantages of asexual reproduction are:

  • As the offspring are genetically identical to their parent, the diseases or nutrient deficiency is passed on to the next generation.
  • The diversity among the organisms is limited as only one organism is involved.
  • Offspring are unable to adapt to new environments.
  • A single change in the environment would result in the elimination of the entire species.

Examples of Asexual Reproduction

  • Bacterium shows binary fission.
  • In starfish, worms reproduce through the fragmentation method.
  • Hydras reproduce via budding.
  • Sugarcane is cultivated using the vegetative propagation method.
  • Succulent plants are grown and re-grown using the plant part, which is the form of vegetative reproduction.
  • Through vegetative propagation, Sugarcane can be grown.

FAQs on Asexual Reproduction

Q1: What are the advantages of Asexual Reproduction?


Some of the advantages of asexual reproduction are:

  • Organisms grew exponentially.
  • No mates required
  • Less chance of variation
  • These organisms reproduce in every environment.

Q2: What is asexual reproduction? 


Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction in which a single parent cell is involved in making a new offspring. Any kind of sexual gametic fusion between male and female gamete is not involved, and the number of chromosomes remains the same as the mother cell.  

Q3: When do plants prefer asexual reproduction in place of sexual reproduction?


When plants suffer extreme harsh environments like drought, climate change, and loss of natural pollinators like insects, and bugs they prefer an asexual mode of reproduction.

Q4: Difference between sexual and asexual reproduction?


Asexual ReproductionSexual Reproduction
Occurs in prokaryotic microorganisms and 
in some eukaryotic organisms.
Occurs in multicellular organisms.
It involves single parents i.e. Mother cellIt involves both male and female cells
No formation of gametes.
Formation of gametes.
Somatic cells of parents are involved.
Germ cells of parents are involved.
No fertilization occurs.Fertilization is observed.
No involvement of reproductive organs.Presence of fully developed reproductive

Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plant

Flowers are the main part and play an important role in the sexual reproduction of plants. Sexual reproduction in plants occurs when the fusion of male and female gametes occurred. The male reproductive part of the flower is known as the androeciumand the female reproductive part is known as the gynoecium. These both can be present in the same flower or male in one and female part in another flower. Zygote is formed after the fusion of male and female gametes. Zygoted developed in seed which further developed in fruit.

Structure of Flower

Structure of Flower

Reproductive structure of Flower

Two types of reproductive structures are present in the flower i.e., Androecium and Gynoecium.


The androecium is the male reproductive part of the plant. The androecium consists of whorls of stamens. A stamen consists of the filament (long and slender stalk) and anther (the terminal bilobed structure). Each lobe is dithecous (2 thecae). Theca is separated by a longitudinal groove running lengthwise. The anther is a tetragonal structure consisting of 4 microsporangia/microsporangium located at the corners 2 in each lobe. The microsporangia develop further and become pollen sacs that are packed with pollen grain.

Pollen Grains

It represents the male gamete and is spherical having a two-layered wall.

  • Outer exine: Hard layer made of sporopollenin which is extremely resistant and can withstand high temperatures, acidic, alkaline conditions, and enzymes.
  • Inner intine: It is a thin and continuous layer made up of cellulose and pectin.
  • A mature pollen grain contains two cells.
    • Vegetative cell: It is bigger in size and reserves food and a large nucleus.
    • Generative cell: It is small in size and floats in the cytoplasm of the vegetative cell. It has a nucleus and it mitotically divides to form 2 male gametes.


The gynoecium represents the female reproductive part of a flower. It consists of whorls of pistils. Each pistil has three parts.

  • Stigma: It is a landing platform for pollen grains
  • Style: It is a long slender part below the stigma
  • Ovary: It is a basal swollen part of the pistil. Inside the ovary, there is a tissue called the placenta upon which ovules are developing. The number of ovules in the ovary may be one or many. The ovary has one or more cavities called locules.


The ovule is attached to the placenta by a stalk (Funicle). The junction where the body of the ovule and funicle fuse is called the hilum. Each ovule has one or two protective envelopes called integuments which cover the rest of the ovule except for a small opening called the micropyle.

Opposite the micropyle end, is the Chalaza which represents the basal part of the ovule. The mass of cells that are enclosed within the integuments is called the nucleus. It contains reserved food materials. The embryo sac or female gametophyte is located within the nucleus.

Formation of Embryosac

The nucleus of the functional megaspore divides mitotically to form two nuclei which move toward the opposite pole and form 2 nucleate embryosac. Two more sequential mitotic nuclear divisions ensure leading to the 8 nuclei and 8 nucleate embryo sac each opposite end has a 4 nucleus group.

Distribution of the Cell Within the Embryo Sac

  • 6 of the 8 nuclei get surrounded by the cell wall and the remaining two called polar nuclei are situated at the center.
  • 3 of the 6 cells are grouped together at the micropylar pole and constitute the egg apparatus (it consists of 2 synergids and one egg cell). The synergids have Filiform apparatus which guides the pollen tubes into the synergid.
  • The other 3 cells at the chalazal end are called the antipodals.
  • Thus, a typical mature angiosperm embryo is 8 nucleates and 7 cells.


Pollination is a course of moving the dust/pollen grains across the anther and the stigma of a similar flower of a plant or to various plants for the process of fertilization and the creation of seeds. The specialists engaged in moving the pollen grains are birds, wind, creatures, and water.


Autogamy (self-pollination)- It is the transfer of pollen grain from another to the stigma of the same flower. It requires the anther and stigma to lie closely. Plants like viola, oxalis, and commelina produce 2 types of flowers.

  • Chasmogamous (Open flower): Flowers with exposed anthers and stigma.
  • Cleistogamous (close flower)-Flowers that do not open at all.
  • Geitonogamy (Cross pollination) – It is the process of transfer of pollen grain from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower in the same plant. It requires a pollination agent.
  • Xenogamy (cross-pollination)- It is the process of the transfer of pollen grain from anther to the stigma of a different plant. This brings a genetic difference.


After entering into synergids, the pollen tube releases 2 male gametes into the cytoplasm of the synergies.

  • Syngamy: One of the male gametes fused with the egg cell forms the zygote (2n) and develops into an embryo.

Male gamete (n) + Egg cell (n) —- Zygote (2n) —Embryo—Plant (2n)

  • Triple fusion– The other male gametes fuses with 2 polar nuclei to produce a triploid primary endosperm nucleus and develops into the endosperm.

Male gamete (n) + 2 polar nuclei (n+n) —primary endosperm nucleus (3n) –Endosperm (3n)

  • The fusion of syngamy and triple fusion that occur in the embryo sac is termed double fertilization.


Following double fertilization, the event of endosperm and embryo development, maturation of ovule into seed, and ovary into fruit are collectively termed post-fertilization events.


Endosperm cells are filled with reserved food materials. They are used for the nutrition of the developing embryo. Steps of endosperm development

  • Step-1 Primary endosperm nucleus undergoes successive nuclear divisions to give rise to free nuclei. This is called a free nuclear endosperm.
  • Step-2 Subsequently cell wall formation occurs and the endosperm becomes cellular. The tender coconut water is a free nuclear endosperm and the surrounding white kernel is the cellular endosperm.

FAQs on Sexual Reproduction in Plants

Q1: What are the 6 steps of sexual reproduction in flowering plants?


Following are the 6 essential steps of sexual reproduction in plants

  1. Seed
  2. Germination of Seed
  3. Seed Maturation and Growth
  4. Reproduction
  5. Pollination
  6. Seed Dispersion

Q2: Which plant dies after flowering?


Plants that die after flowering are monocarpous flowers. Example: Alphonse De Candolle

Q3: Define syngamy and triple fusion.


  • Syngamy: One of the male gametes fused with the egg cell forms the zygote (2n) and develops into an embryo.
  • Triple fusion- The other male gametes fuses with 2 polar nuclei to produce a triploid primary endosperm nucleus and develops into the endosperm.

Q4: Why vegetative reproduction is also considered a type of asexual reproduction?


Vegetative reproduction is a cycle during which new plants are obtained without the get-together of seeds or spores. It includes the engendering of plants through specific vegetative parts like the rhizome, sucker, tuber, bulb, and so on. 

Reproduction in Humans

In people, both boys and females have different conceptive frameworks; thus, they are known to show sexual dimorphism. Boys have testicles likewise called gonads, while females have a couple of ovaries. All individuals go through a sexual method of generation. In this cycle, two guardians are engaged with delivering another person. Posterity are created by the combination of gametes (sex cells) from each parent. Thus, the recently shaped individual will be unique in relation to guardians, both hereditarily and actually. Human reproduction is an illustration of sexual generation.

Female Reproduction System

Female Reproductive System

The female reproduction system comprises of interior and outside sex organs basically and practically cooperating to finish the course of multiplication right from ovulation to birth of the youthful one. Different pieces of the female reproductive framework are-

  • Ovaries – They bring about the female gamete or the egg. Every ovary discharges one egg, on the other hand, every month. Ovulation is the course of the arrival of an egg from both of ovaries.
  • Uterus – It is an enormously strong organ that is available in the pelvic pit. The uterus is the district of activity during the feminine cycle, preparation, and the improvement of the embryo.
  • Fallopian tubes – Also known as the oviducts, these cylinders emerge from the ovaries and end at the uterine fundus. Their capability is to convey the egg whenever it is delivered into the uterus where it can combine with the male sperm.
  • Outer Genitalia – Mons pubis (greasy tissue), labia majora and labia minora (tissue folds), and clitoris structure outside female genitalia and the hymen layer cover the vaginal opening.
  • Mammary organs – A couple of bosoms are available in females. They contain fat and mammary organs. Alveolar cells discharge milk.
  • Vagina – This is a solid cylinder-like design that is available at the lower end of the cervix and leads beyond the female body. The vagina capabilities as the pathway for the penis to enter the female body and store the sperms which then, at that point, swim their direction to the uterus to treat with the female egg.
  • Urethra: It is more limited than that tracked down in guys. In females, the urethra serves just for entry of pee.


Oogenesis is the development of a full-grown female gamete called the ovum. Oogenesis contrasts with spermatogenesis as the course of oogenesis begins during early stage advancement when contrasted with spermatogenesis, which just beginnings at pubescence. Ovulation is the cycle by which the ovum (optional oocyte) is delivered on the burst of the Graafian follicle Around 2,000,000 oogonia are framed in the ovary of a hatchling and no more oogonia are shaped after that

Male Reproduction System

Male Reproductive Part

Male gametes are sperms. Sperms are delivered inside the male conceptive framework. Around 200-300 million sperms are discharged on the double by a solid male individual. The main Parts of the Male Reproductive System Are as Follows

  • Testicles – A couple of oval-formed organs veiled in a pocket called the scrotum. They are answerable for the development of sperms and the male chemical testosterone.
  • Vas deferens – The sperms delivered in testicles are put away in a cylinder called the epididymis. Here the sperms get developed and pass to the urethra through the solid cylinder called vas deferens.
  • Scrotum – It is a sac-like organ that hangs beneath the penis and behind it. It is the place of the gonads, or testicles, and keeps a temperature that is expected for the development of sperm by it.
  • Penis – The penis is a barrel-shaped tube that fills in as both a conceptive organ and an excretory organ. It conveys sperms into the vagina during sex.
  • Glands – There are three organs, prostate organ, a couple of fundamental vesicles, and bulbourethral organs. The organs emit fundamental plasma. It is wealthy in specific compounds, calcium, and fructose, and gives oil to the penis.


Spermiogenesis is the course of the arrangement of sperms from spermatids. Spermiation is the interaction by which sperms are let out of seminiferous tubules. LH animates Leydig cells to emit androgens. The fundamental androgens are testosterone and androstenedione. These chemicals animate the course of spermatogenesis.

Human Reproduction Steps  


It is the cycle by which the essential male and female sex organs like the testicles in guys and the ovaries in the female produce gametes.

  • Spermatogenesis: This is the cycle by which the juvenile male microbe cells otherwise called spermatogonia produce mature sperm cells in the testis.
  • Oogenesis: Oogenesis is the cycle by which the youthful oogonia in the ovaries delivers an experienced ovum.


  • It is the cycle where semen is delivered into the vagina by the penis during intercourse or relations.
  • The ovum which is delivered by the ovary is likewise moved to the ampullary district of the fallopian tube.
  • The motile male gamete or sperm swims quickly through the cervix, goes into the uterus, and lastly arrives at the site of treatment which is in the ampullary district of the fallopian tube.


  • The fertilization happens when one of the million sperm melds an egg. It happens at the ampullary locale of the fallopian tube. Fertilization is trailed by implantation. Implantation is the start of pregnancy.
  • Just a single sperm can prepare an egg at once. This is on the grounds that when one of the sperms interacts with the zona pellucida of the ovum, no more sperms can enter further a similar ovum.
  • On the passage of the sperm, the Second meiotic division of the auxiliary oocyte starts. Subsequently, an enormous ootid (haploid) and the optional polar body is framed.
  • Sperm and ovum circuit and structure the zygote.The zygote structures blastomeres by isolating mitotically. Then it moves towards the uterus through the oviduct.
  • In the event that the sperm containing the X chromosome prepares the ovum, the zygote forms into a female, and when sperm with the Y chromosome treats the ovum, the zygote forms into a male.

Blastocyst development & Implantation 

  • The incipient organism with 8-16 blastomeres is known as a morula.
  • It proceeds with its division as it moves further along into the uterus. The blastomeres are organized into two layers. First is the external layer called the trophoblast and the other is the internal cell mass which is appended to the trophoblast.
  • The trophoblast layer then joins to the endometrium of the uterus.
  • The internal cell mass separates to cover the blastocyst.
  • The cells of the blastocyst are implanted in the uterine wall. This peculiarity is called implantation which prompts pregnancy.

Embryo development

  • After implantation, cells of the embryo begin separating into external ectoderm, internal endoderm, and afterward the center mesoderm. These are called essential germinal layers and every one of the grown-up tissues is created from these three layers
  • Undifferentiated organisms are available in the inward cell mass. They can form into a wide range of tissues and are called pluripotent. Undifferentiated organisms are presently being utilized and investigated for the therapy of different dangerous infections like disease
  • The placenta is the connection between the developing embryo and the mother. It is shaped by the interdigitation of uterine cells and chorionic villi (finger-like projections), distending from trophoblasts.
  • Relaxin level increments at the later phases of pregnancy. Relaxin level additionally increments at the hour of ovulation yet without even a trace of pregnancy, the level reductions and the monthly cycle begins.
  • Level of progesterone, estrogen, prolactin, cortisol, thyroxine, and so forth increments to help fetal development.


The course of childbirth is known as parturition. Parturition is started by neuroendocrine signs. Gentle uterine constrictions start when the hatchling is completely evolved. This is trailed by the discharge of oxytocin from the pituitary organ. Constrictions become increasingly strong as more oxytocin is discharged bringing about childbirth. After the newborn child, the placenta is additionally conveyed.

Frequently Asked Questions 

Question 1: Explain the structure of sperm. 


Approximately 200-300 million sperms are ejaculated at the same time.

  • Apically, the head contains an acrosome, which contains enzymes that aid sperm entry into the ovum. It is followed by a nucleus that is elongated. 
  • Multiple mitochondria in the middle piece provide energy for sperm movement.
  • The tail is a flagellum that protrudes from the cell body and is responsible for sperm motility.

Question 2: Explain three layers of the uterine wall in the female reproduction system. 


  • Perimetrium is the membranous outermost layer.
  • Myometrium is the smooth muscle’s middle layer. The myometrium causes strong contractions during delivery.
  • The endometrium is a glandular tissue that changes cyclically during the menstrual cycle. Blastocysts become embedded in the endometrium to develop.

Question 3: Explain the process of reproduction in humans. 


Fertilization is the process of fusing sperm and egg (ovum) to produce a zygote. The fertilized egg is known as a zygote. The zygote begins to divide into numerous cells and develops into an embryo. The embryo enters and attaches to the uterine walls. This is known as implantation, and the implanted embryo will eventually develop into a fetus.

Question 4: Explain about Parturition. And also mention its stages? 


Parturition is the process of transferring a fully developed fetus and placenta from the uterus to the vagina to the outside world after the pregnancy has ended. This procedure is divided into three stages, which are as follows:

  • Stage 1: Preparatory- 2 to 12 hours
  • Stage 2: Birthing Time -30 to 180 minutes
  • Placenta Expulsion -1 to 12 hours

Question 5: Explain the menstrual cycle. 


This is the reproductive cycle that begins with one menstruation and ends with the next. It primarily affects female primates such as monkeys, apes, and humans. The cycle repeats every 28-35 days and normally produces one egg per cycle. This cycle is critical for oocyte production as well as uterine preparation for pregnancy.

Question 6: Explain about three phases of the menstrual cycle. 


  • Menstrual phase: When the ovum fails to fertilize, menstrual flow occurs as a result of endometrial lining disintegration.
  • follicular phase: The primary follicle develops into the Graafian follicle, which leads to ovulation. The endometrium regenerates as well.
  • Ovulation refers to the release of an ovum from a mature Graafian follicle. It occurs as a result of the LH surge, which occurs around the 14th day of the cycle.
  • The secretory phase is also known as the luteal phase. The corpus luteum is formed from the remaining Graafian follicle.

Male Reproductive System 

Male Reproductive System
  • The male conceptive framework comprises organs that produce and transport the male microbe cell or gamete, male chemical testosterone, and the organs which work with the release of male microorganism cells into the female regenerative framework for preparation.
  • The male gamete is the sperm which is a minuscule body containing the hereditary material and they have a long tail for motility to assist them with arriving at the female microorganism cell for treatment.
  • The vitally regenerative organ in guys is a couple of testicles.
  • They produce the male sex cells called sperms and furthermore produce the male sex chemical testosterone.
  • The framework comprises a few outside organs like the penis, scrotum, and testicles and inside organs like the urethra, prostate, and original vesicles.
  • The Penis has a root that is associated with the designs of both the pelvic bones and lower stomach (the shaft’s noticeable part) organs that has a cone molded end.
  • The urethra opening is the channel that conveys semen and pee and lies at the tip of the penis. The foundation of the penis is known as Corona.
  • The vast majority of the male conceptive framework is situated beyond your stomach hole or pelvis. The outer pieces of the male conceptive framework incorporate the penis, the scrotum, and the gonads.


The penis is the male organ for sex. It has three sections they are ;
  • The root – This is the piece of the penis that appends to the mass of your midsection.
  • The body or shaft – Shaped like a cylinder or chamber, the body of the penis is comprised of three inward chambers. Inside these chambers, there’s an exceptional, wipe-like erectile tissue that contains a great many enormous spaces that load up with blood when you’re physically stirred. As the penis loads up with blood, it becomes inflexible and erect, which considers entrance during sex. The skin of the penis is free and flexible, considering changes in penis size during an erection.
  • The glans – This is the cone-formed finish of the penis. The glans, which are likewise called the top of the penis, are covered with a free layer of skin called a prepuce. This skin is here and there eliminated in a methodology called circumcision.

The kickoff of the urethra — the cylinder that transports both semen and pee out of the body — is situated at the tip of the glans penis. The penis likewise contains numerous delicate sensitive spots.


A couple of testicles are available in people. Testicles are available external the body in a pocket called the scrotum. They are oval bodies, around 4 to 5 cm long and 2 to 3 cm wide. For the most part, the left testis hangs somewhat lower than the right one.

The two essential elements of tests are as per the following:

  • Creating sperms or spermatogenesis – a transporter of man’s qualities.
  • Creating testosterone – a male sex chemical.
  • Every testis contains around 250 testicular lobules or compartments.

Sperms are created in the seminiferous tubules. Seminiferous tubules are lined by two sorts of cells:

  • Sertoli cells – They give sustenance to microbe cells.
  • Spermatogonia or male microbe cells – They go through spermatogenesis to deliver sperm.
  • Ley dig cells or interstitial cells are available external to the seminiferous tubules in the interstitial spaces. They emit male sex chemicals or androgens, for example, testosterone.


  • This is the free pocket-like sac of skin that hangs behind and underneath the penis. It contains the balls (likewise called testicles), as well as many nerves and veins.
  • The scrotum goes about as an “environment control framework” for the testicles. For ordinary sperm improvement, the testicles should be at a temperature marginally cooler than the internal heat level.
  • Exceptional muscles in the mass of the scrotum permit it to contract and unwind, drawing the balls nearer to the body for warmth or farther away from the body to cool the temperature.

Male Sex Accessory Organs

  • Rete testis, vasa efferentia , epididymis, and vas deferens are male sex frill pipes. Seminiferous tubules open into rete testis, which prompts vasa efferentia. Vasa efferentia opens into the epididymis and epididymis prompts vas deferens.
  • It prompts the ejaculatory conduit alongside a channel from the fundamental vesicle. Sperms mature in these conduits. Sperms are put away and shipped through these pipes.


The epididymis is a long, looped tube that lays on the rear of every gonad. It transports and stores sperm cells that are created in the testicles. It likewise is the occupation of the epididymis to carry the sperm to development, since the sperm that rise up out of the testicles are youthful and unequipped for treatment. During sexual excitement, withdrawals force the sperm into the vas deferens.


It is a cylinder-like construction that interfaces the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus. In guys, the urethra goes through the penis and is for the most part engaged with two principal capabilities: The Prostate exists underneath the bladder and covers the urethra. The prostate becomes bigger with age. In the event that the prostate develops excessively, it can impede the pee course through the urethra and be answerable for a few urinary side effects. This area is remembered for the urinary lot that takes pee from the bladder where semen is discharged.

Vas deferens 

The vas deferens is a long, solid cylinder that moves from the epididymis into the pelvic hole, to simply behind the bladder. The vas deferens transports mature sperm to the urethra, the cylinder that conveys pee or sperm beyond the body, in anticipation of discharge.

Ejaculatory conduits

These are framed by the combination of the vas deferens and the fundamental vesicles (see underneath). The ejaculatory conduits void into the urethra.

Male Sex Embellishment Organs

The male embellishment organs incorporate original vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral organs. These organs emit liquids that enter the urethra.

Fundamental Vesicles 

The matched original vesicles are saccular organs back to the urinary bladder. Every organ has a short channel that gets together with the ductus deferens at the ampulla to frame an ejaculatory conduit, which then discharges into the urethra. The liquid from the fundamental vesicles is gooey and contains fructose, which gives an energy source to the sperm; prostaglandins, which add to the versatility and feasibility of the sperm; and proteins that cause slight coagulation responses in the semen after discharge.


The prostate organ is a firm, thick design that is found only second rate compared to the urinary bladder.  Various short channels from the substance of the prostate organ void into the prostatic urethra. The emissions of the prostate are flimsy, smooth-hued, and soluble. The capability to upgrade the motility of the sperm.

Bulbourethral Glands or Cowper organs 

The matched bulbourethral organs are little, about the size of a pea, and situated close to the foundation of the penis. A short channel from every organ enters the proximal finish of the penile urethra. In light of sexual excitement, the bulbourethral organs discharge a basic bodily fluid-like liquid. This liquid kills the corrosiveness of the pee buildup in the urethra, assists with killing the causticity of the vagina, and gives a grease to the tip of the penis during intercourse.

Conceptual Question 

Question 1: Make sense of the capability of the male regenerative framework?


The entire male conceptive structure is dependent upon synthetic substances, which are engineered materials that control the development of many kinds of cells or organs. The fundamental synthetic substances related to the male regenerative structure are follicle fortifying compound, luteinizing compound, and testosterone.

Question 2: Explain about main reproductive organs in the male reproductive system? 


The super-regenerative organ in guys is a couple of testicles. They are available in scrotal sacs outside the body and contain seminiferous tubules as the primary and practical unit.,Male sex cells, sperms, are delivered by seminiferous tubules and mature in the epididymis. Leydig cells or interstitial cells in the middle of between the seminiferous tubules emit chemical testosterone.

Question 3:  Explain about the penis? 


The penis is the male copulatory organ and a tube-shaped pendant organ found foremost to the scrotum and capabilities to move sperm to the vagina. The penis comprises three segments of erectile tissue that are enveloped by connective tissue and covered with skin.

Question 4: What are male sex accessory glands? 


The male frill organs incorporate fundamental vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral organs. A couple of original vesicles are available. The Seminal vesicles are available over the prostate, connected with the vas deferens to make the ejaculatory conduits that move through the prostate. The male frill organs create a liquid that sustains the sperm. It is called fundamental plasma. 

Question 5: What are the functions of testes? 


Testicles are a couple of egg-formed organs that demonstrate the scrotum, outwardly of the body. Their capability is To deliver male gametes for example the sperms and To deliver a male regenerative chemical called testosterone which is liable for creating sperms as well as optional sexual qualities in guys.

Female Reproductive System

Female Reproductive System
  • The female conceptive framework is made out of a couple of ovaries alongside oviducts, vagina, cervix, uterus, and the outer genitalia that are situated in the pelvic district.
  • The female conceptive framework is outlined to carry out various roles. It makes egg cells that are fundamental for propagation known as ova. 
  • The framework is coordinated to convey the ova to the locale of treatment. The egg treatment happens in the Fallopian tubes alongside the sperm.
  • The embedding in the walls of the uterus and starting the phases of pregnancy is the subsequent stage of prepared eggs.
  • Aside from the previously mentioned capabilities, the female conceptive framework is additionally associated with the creation of female sex chemicals to keep up with the regenerative cycle.

Principal interior organs of female regenerative framework

  • Vagina – The vagina is a solid and versatile cylinder that interfaces the cervix to the outside body. Its capabilities as the repository for the penis in sex and conveys sperm to the fallopian cylinders and uterus. It likewise goes about as a birth trench by extending to permit conveyance of the fetus during labor.
  • Uterus – This is a pack-like solid flexible design into which the two oviducts open. The uterus is the site where the prepared egg is embedded and develops into an embryo. It is made of 3 tissues, the external perimetrium, the center layer of the myometrium, and the inward endometrium. This is additionally answerable for supporting the hatchling during the whole development time frame.
  • Cervix – This works with a section for the passage of the sperm into the uterus.
  • Ovaries – ovaries go about as the super female sex organs that produce the female gamete and different chemicals. These organs are arranged one on both sides of the lower mid-region. Every ovary estimates to be around 2 to 4 cm long which is then associated with the uterus and pelvic wall through tendons. The ovary is encircled by a slim covering of epithelium, encases the ovarian stroma, and is partitioned into two zones – the external cortex and the internal medulla.
  •  Fallopian Tubes These are limited cylinders that are joined to the upper piece of the uterus and act as pathways for the ova (egg cells) to head out from the ovaries to the uterus. Preparation of an egg by a sperm typically happens in the fallopian tubes. The treated egg then, at that point, moves to the uterus, where it inserts into the uterine coating.

 Outer Part of the Female Reproductive System 

  • Labia majora – The labia majora’s enormous lips encase and safeguard the other outer conceptive organs. During adolescence, hair development happens on the skin of the labia majora, which likewise contains sweat and oil-emitting organs.
  • Labia minora-The labia minora little lips can have different sizes and shapes. They lie right inside the labia majora and encompass the openings to the vagina the trench that joins the lower part of the uterus to the beyond the body, and urethra the cylinder that conveys pee from the bladder to the beyond the body. This skin is exceptionally fragile and can turn out to be effectively aggravated and enlarged.
  • Clitoris-The two labia minora meet at the clitoris, a little, delicate distension that is similar to the penis in guys. The clitoris is covered by a crease of skin, called the prepuce, which is like the prepuce toward the finish of the penis. Like the penis, the clitoris is extremely delicate to the excitement and can become erect.

Fertilization and Pregnancy

The course of treatment of a male and female gamete or sperm and egg begins when the sperm enters the female regenerative framework through the vaginal section during intercourse. From the vaginal entry, they climb through the uterus towards the fallopian tubes. The eggs are available in the fallopian tube, meet the sperm, and get treated. The treated egg, which is known as the zygote, begins partitioning more than once and goes down the fallopian cylinder to the uterus. The chunk of cells or undeveloped organisms gets embedded in the endometrial coating of the uterus and keeps on developing into a hatchling. It assists with shipping glucose and oxygen to the undeveloped organism and eliminates the squanders created by the incipient organism. The undeveloped organism helps its sustenance from the mother through an extraordinary tissue called the placenta which goes about as an association between the mother and the creating incipient organism. It requires around nine months for the total advancement of the kid inside the mother’s body. The kid is brought into the world because of the cadenced withdrawals of the uterine muscles.

Menstrual Cycle

All females, in the wake of arriving at their pubescence, produce mature egg cells consistently during an interaction called the feminine cycle. During this period, an ovary releases a matured egg, which goes to the uterus. In the uterus, on the off chance that the egg isn’t prepared, the coating in the uterine sheds away and another cycle starts. In general, a period goes on for 28 days, at times, these cycles may either keep going for 21 days or up to 35 days in certain people. The cycle might be unpredictable now and again, particularly during adolescence. The periods happen consistently from the hour of pubescence up to the age of 45 to 55, besides during pregnancy. The whole course of the period is constrained by the endocrine framework and the chemicals included are FSH, LH, estrogen, and progesterone. Both FSH and LH chemicals are delivered by the pituitary organ, while estrogen and progesterone chemicals are created by the ovaries. Along with the hormonal problems, there are numerous different variables, which are answerable for the aggravation in the period. The mindful elements incorporate eating routine, exercise, stress, and weight gain or misfortune that influence the monthly cycle. After the age of 55 ovaries dials back their creation of chemicals and arrival of mature eggs. Logically, the period stops, in this way, the lady is as of now not ready to become pregnant.

Conceptual Question 

Question 1 . Explain the function of fimbriae? 


Fimbriae of the uterine cylinder are little finger-like projections lying at the terminal of the fallopian tubes. It is through these that the eggs move from the ovaries to the uterus. The fimbriae are connected to the ovary. These fimbriae are the edge of tissue close to the ostium of the uterine cylinder coordinating to the ovary. During the course of ovulation when an egg lets in the peritoneal hole out of the ovary, the fimbriae cilia clear the ova inside the fallopian tube.

Question 2: What is the average time is taken for the menstrual cycle and its phases? 


The typical period requires around 28 days for the feminine cycle and happens in stages. They are,

  • The follicular stage-improvement of the egg.
  • The ovulatory stage-the arrival of the egg .
  • The luteal phase-chemical levels decline in the event that the egg doesn’t embed.

Question 3: What hormones are involved in the menstrual cycle? 


There are five fundamental chemicals that control the feminine cycle. Three are created in the mind, while the other two are made in the ovaries., they are ;

  • Progesterone
  • Estrogen
  • FSH
  • LH
  • Gonadotropin-delivering chemical.

Question 4: What is meant by vulva? 


The outside (outer) designs of the female conceptive framework are gathered in a space called the vulva. They are found right external to the launch of the vagina. This incorporates designs like the labia, the clitoris, and various organs. The bosoms can likewise be viewed as a feature of the female regenerative framework and are situated on the chest.

Question 5: What is the function of the female reproductive system, explain? 


The primary capability of the female regenerative framework is to create eggs (ova) to be prepared and to give the space and conditions to permit a child to create. For this to occur, the feminine regenerative framework likewise has the styles vital to allow spermatozoan from a person to satisfy the ova of a girl.

Reproductive Health 

  • The World Health Organization defines reproductive health as “the total well-being and proper functioning of reproductive organs in all stages of reproduction.” This includes a state of complete mental, physical, and social well-being.
  • Aside from maintaining a “satisfying and safe sex life,” reproductive and sexual health includes the freedom and capacity to reproduce when and how one chooses.
  • A variety of programs are available to help people maintain their reproductive health. These programs include both small advertisements and a few entertainment shows that are broadcast on television.
  • for promoting healthy sexual habits and raising awareness about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). All of the government’s and non-governmental organizations’ efforts are aimed at creating a reproductively healthy society.

Reproductive Health Life Cycle  

  • Childhood and infancy (0 – 9 years)-Sex selection (resulting in foeticide), female genital mutilation, discriminatory nutrition, and healthcare are all aspects of reproductive health during infancy and childhood.
  • Adolescence (10 – 19 years)-Physiological changes, early marriage, and childbearing, abortion, contracting an infectious disease (AIDS/sexually transmitted infections), anemia, sexual orientation, abuse or violence, and gender discrimination are all concerns about reproductive health during adolescence.
  • Reproductive Age (15-45+ years)-Forcible marriage, unplanned pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, infertility, malnutrition, pregnancy complications, child-rearing, violence, and abuse are some of the issues.
  • Post-Reproductive Period (after 45 years)-Aside from reproductive health, other physical ailments may arise during the post-reproductive period. Cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis/osteoporosis, sexual dysfunction, diabetes, infertility, and menopause are among them.

Problems associated with Reproductive Health 

  • Overpopulation- an increase in population causes a scarcity of every basic need, affecting reproductive health.
  • Sexually transmitted diseases (STIs) can have an impact on reproductive health.
  • People are unconcerned about safe and sanitary sexual practices due to a lack of sex education.
  • Adolescent changes- the changes that occur during adolescence can lead to sex abuse and thus affect reproductive health.
  • Female foeticide- Female foeticide can have an impact on a woman’s reproductive and sexual health.
  • Sex abuse and sex-related crimes- sex abuse can result in physical harm, unwanted pregnancy, vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, and other problems.


  • It is critical for adults and adolescents to understand sexual health, reproduction, contraception, and STDs. This will aid in the maintenance of good reproductive health, both physically and mentally.
  • Reproductive Health educates people about sexually transmitted diseases and provides accurate information about sexual life, reproduction, and contraception methods.
  • Aids in the maintenance of safe sexual and reproductive health.
    Individuals can protect themselves from sexually transmitted infections and diseases if they are aware of the risks.
  • It teaches all pregnant mothers how to care for their health, take proper medications, maintain good health and hygiene while pregnant, have a safe delivery, and deliver a healthy baby.
  • Only by being well informed about sexually transmitted infections and diseases can people protect themselves.
  • Women should be aware of their pregnancy readiness. They must have access to proper medical services while pregnant in order to have a safe delivery and a healthy baby.

Strategies to Improve Reproductive Health 

  • One of the steps taken by the government to raise awareness among adolescents about safe sexual practices is the implementation of sex education.
  • As adolescents reach reproductive age, it is critical to educate them on the dangers of unsafe sexual practices and early pregnancy.
  • There are a few evil reproductions practices that continue to plague our society.
  • It is accomplished through the implementation of the ‘National Adolescent Education Program’ in various schools from 9th to 12th grades.
  • People in the marriageable group are educated on infertility, birth control methods, pregnancy,post -partum care for both the baby and the mother, and so on.
  • It is also critical to provide adequate medical facilities to address issues such as infertility and other reproductive difficulties.
  • One such example is female infanticide. Amniocentesis testing has been legally prohibited in order to prevent this crime.

Components of Reproductive Health 

Sexual Health

  • Contraception is not only important for preventing unwanted pregnancies, but it also protects against sexually transmitted infections.
  • STIs are major risk factors for both men’s and women’s reproductive health. While HIV is much more difficult to treat, Gonorrhea and Chlamydia are easily preventable and treatable.

Family planning
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) defines family planning as “individuals’ and couples’ ability to anticipate and achieve their desired number of children, as well as the spacing and timing of their births.”
  • It is accomplished through the use of contraception and the treatment of involuntary infertility.”
  • Pregnancy and fertility are two of the most common aspects of family planning. Successful pregnancy between the ages of 25 and 34 has recently become a major concern.

Maternal health

  • Women should have access to medical care throughout their pregnancy, including the prenatal and postnatal stages.
  • Aside from these major components, the menstrual cycle, healthy relationships, as well as choice and safety, are critical pillars of reproductive health.

Steps to Increase Citizen Awareness

  • Both governmental and non-governmental organizations use audio-visual and print media to create awareness programs.
  • Responsible adults, teachers, parents, close relatives, and friends must provide correct information to young adults and children, as well as open dialogues, to make them aware of reproductive health.
  • Fetal sex determination is completely prohibited in order to prevent female foeticide.
  • Sex education should be taught in schools and colleges.
  • The facilities provided must be newer and upgraded to meet the needs of reproductive health.
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases, or STDs, must be made more widely known.
  • People must be made aware of the issues surrounding population growth, sex-related crimes, and sex abuse.
  • People should be educated about birth control options, pre-and post-natal care, and the importance of child care, especially for fertile couples and marriageable individuals.
  • They must also be educated on the benefits of breastfeeding; all of this will result in the development of a conscious and healthy society and families.
  • To successfully implement health plans, there must be professional expertise available, as well as strong infrastructural facilities and material support.

Population Stabilization and Birth Control

  • Factors such as a rapid decline in the death rate, infant mortality rate (IMR), the maternal mortality rate (MMR), and a sharp rise in the reproducible age are deemed to be contributing factors to the population’s exponential rise from the time of independence until May 2011.
  • As a result of the alarming growth rate that has resulted in a scarcity of basic necessities, the government has been forced to take tough measures.
  • The RCH (Reproductive Child Health) program was only marginally effective in slowing population growth.
  • The most important measure to slow population growth is to encourage people to have smaller families through the use of various contraceptives.
  • Other measures included familiarising slogans (Hum do Hamare do), the statutory raising of both male and female marriageable ages, incentives for couples with smaller families, and so on.
  • Natural/traditional methods (periodic abstinence), IUDs, barriers (diaphragms, condoms, cervical caps, vaults), oral contraceptives (pills), implants, surgical methods (sterilization), injectables, and other methods are available.


  • Infertility refers to the inability to have children even after unprotected coitus.
  • Infertility disorders can sometimes be treated with the help of specialized health care units such as infertility clinics, and if these treatments are ineffective, couples can opt for Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART).
  • It has been observed that in society, women are primarily blamed for being childless, but the problem can be in either the male or female.
  • Physical, diseases, congenital, immunological, drug or even psychological factors can all contribute to infertility.

Medical Termination Of Pregnancy(MTP)

  • Medical abortion is a drug-assisted method of ending a pregnancy. Medical abortions do not require surgery or anesthesia and can be performed in the doctor’s office or at home, with follow-up visits to your doctor.
  • Medical abortion is a major decision with significant emotional and psychological consequences. If you’re considering having this surgery, make sure you understand what it entails, as well as the risks, issues, and alternatives.
  • Medical abortions are performed for a variety of reasons. Medical abortion can be used to complete an early miscarriage or to end an unwanted pregnancy.
  • If you have a medical condition that makes carrying the pregnancy to term dangerous, you can also obtain a medical abortion.

FAQs on Reproductive Health

Question 1: What are the most common reproductive health issues?


  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases Due to Overpopulation
  • Mother’s and baby’s health problems
  • Early marriages before the age of puberty
  • An increased maternal and infant mortality rate
  • Deformities

Question 2: Steps were taken to raise public awareness about reproductive health?


  • Sex education in schools and increased awareness of family planning
  • Using Audio and Video on Reproductive Health Powerpoint Slides.
  • To raise awareness, all printed materials were distributed.
  • Complete information on reproductive organs, adolescence, safe and sanitary sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases, birth control methods, maternal and newborn child care, and so on.

Question 3: What are the primary goals of reproductive health?


  • To improve the prevention of diseases that may have an impact on maternal health.
  • To make quality maternal and reproductive health services available to rural residents.
  • Expanding the institutional and human resource capacities of local governments, health centers, communities, and men and women involved in reproductive health.

Question 4: What is the significance of reproductive health?


  • The reproductive system is one of the most vulnerable in human bodies. Unhealthy lifestyle choices in earlier years can have a negative impact on overall health, as well as sexual and reproductive health. The primary issue that arises is fertility.
  • Prenatal care and reproductive health are inextricably linked. Fertility and related health issues are better addressed by engaging in safe sex, which prevents unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections.

Question 5: What does infertility imply?


  • Infertility is defined as the inability to produce offspring despite sexual intercourse. It can be caused by congenital, physical, drug, psychological, or immunological factors.
  • There are specialized techniques to help such couples, such as ART (assisted reproductive technologies), which includes IVF (invitro fertilization) and ET.

Question 6: What are the three factors that contribute to reproductive health?


  • Maternal health is the preservation of a woman’s health during pregnancy and after childbirth.
  • Sexual health entails a respectful and positive attitude toward sexual relationships. It is a necessary condition for good reproductive health.
  • Family planning has a substantial impact on the well-being of families, particularly women. Better family planning and the use of contraception can help people avoid unwanted pregnancies and space births, as well as protect themselves from STDs.

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