1. What changes can you make in your habits to become more environment-friendly?

Solution :

(a) Plant one tree on every birthday.

(b) Stop using polythene bags.

(c) Switch off unnecessary lights and fans.

(d) Take bus instead of personal vehicles.

(e) Use CFL in place of bulbs.

2. What would be the advantage of exploiting resources with short-term aims?

Solution :

(a) It can meet the immediate needs of the masses.

(b) We shall be able to get industrial growth.

3. How would these advantages differ from the advantages of using a long-term prospective in managing our resources?

Solution : Exploitation of resources with short-term aims are beneficial for present day generation while managing with long-term perspective are on a sustainable basis and are aimed to fulfill the needs of future generations as well.

4. Why do you think there should be equitable distribution of resources? What forces would be working against an equitable distribution of our resources?

Solution : Natural resources are given to us given nature. All the individuals have equal right on these resources like air and water. Industrialists and some other rich persons are who are in power wants to grab all the resources. It is this section which is working against equitable distribution of energy.

5. Why should we conserve forests and wildlife?

Solution : Forests present a wide biological diversity. They are essential for ecological diversity, to prevent floods and to influence rainfall. Forests help in protection of soil and in retaining sub-soil water.

6. Suggests some approaches towards the conservation of forests.

Solution :

(a) Afforestation

(b) Check on indiscriminate cutting of trees.

(c) Check on forest fires

(d) Check on overgrazing.

7. Find out about the traditional systems of water harvesting / management in your region.

Solution : The traditional system of water conservation differs from region to region for example.

(a) Khadin, tanks and nadis in Rajasthan

(b) Bandharas and tals in Maharashtra

(c) Ahars and pyenes in Bihar

(d) kattas in Karnataka

8. Compare the above system with the probable systems in hilly/mountainous areas or plains or plateau regions.

Solution : In hilly / mountainous areas mostly in Himachal Pradesh, kulhs are used to take water to several villages down the hillside. In largely level terrain, water harvesting structures are mainly crescent shaped earthen embankments or low straight concrete and rubble check dams built across seasonally flooded gullies. They are different from pits and ponds as they store running water.

9. Find out the source of water in your region/locality. Is water from this source available to all people living in that area?

Solution : In Delhi, the source of water in Yamuna. Water from this source is available mostly to all people in Delhi.

10. What changes would you suggest in your home in order to be environment-friendly?

Solution : Changes that can be undertaken in our homes to be environment-friendly are listed below :
(i)Switch off the electrical appliances when not in use.
(ii)Turn the taps off while brushing or bathing and repair the leaking taps.
(iii)Throw biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste into separate bins.
(iv)Construct composting pits.
(v)Food items such as jam, pickles, etc., come packed in plastic bottles. These bottles can later be used for storing things in the kitchen.

11. Can you suggest some changes in your school which would make it environment friendly?

Solution : Some approaches towards the conservation of forests are as follows :
(a) People should show their participation in saving the forest by protesting against the cutting of trees. For example, Chipko Andolan
(b) Planting of trees should be increased. Rate of afforestation must be more than that of deforestation.
(c) Some people cut precious trees such as Chandan to earn money. Government should take legal steps to catch these wood smugglers.
(d) Habitants of forests must not be bothered by the forest officials. Otherwise, this would result in the clash between tribal people and the government officials, thereby enhancing the naxal activities in forests.

12. We saw in this chapter that there are four main stakeholders when it comes to forests and wildlife. Which among these should have the authority to decide the management of forest produces? Why do you think so?

Solution : The local people who live in or around the forest area should have the authority to decide the management of forest produces. These people know various practices to use the resources in sustainable manner. These people have been using the forest and wild life resources since ancient times without harming or causing any damage to the environment.

13. How can you as an individual contribute or make a difference to the management of
(a) forests and wildlife, (b) water resources and (c) coal and petroleum?

Solution :
As an individual

(a) (i) I will not allow cutting of trees.

(ii) I shall plant one tree every year and watch it growing.

(b) (i) I shall use water judiciously.

(ii) I shall immediately repair leaky taps

(c) (i) I shall pool the car for going to office.

(ii) Every Sunday will be no car Sunday.

14. What can you as an individual do to reduce your consumption of the various natural resources?

Solution : The following measures can be taken :

(a) Save electricity by switching off unnecessary lights and fan.

(b) Walk or cycle whenever possible.

(c) Use CFL instead of bulbs

(d) Do not wastes food

(e) Repair leaky taps at the earliest instant.

15. List five things you have done over the last one week to-

(a) Conserve our natural resources.

(b) Increase the pressure on our natural resources.

Solution :

(i) not wasted electricity.

(ii) Planted a tree

(iii) Used cloth bag for shopping.

(iv) Not used my car and used public transport.

(b) (i) I forgot to switch off room light and television set when I was away for two days.

(ii) Water kept running when I brushed the teeth and when shaved my beard.

(iii) Household garbage was thrown on the roadside.

(iv) I mixed biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes.

16. On the basis of the issues raised in this chapter, what changes would you incorporate in your lifestyle in a move towards a sustainable use of our resources?

Solution : One should incorporate the following changes in life-style in a move towards a sustainable use of our resources :
(i) Stop cutting trees and practice plantation of trees.
(ii) Stop using plastic and polythene bags for carrying goods.
(iii) Use recycled paper.
(iv) Throw biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste into separate bins.
(v) Waste minimum amount of water while using and repair leaking taps.
(vi) Practice rainwater harvesting.
(vi) Avoid using vehicles for short distances. Instead, one can walk or cycle to cover short distances. To cover long distances, one should take a bus instead of using personal vehicles.
(vii) Switch off electrical appliances when not in use.
(viii) Use fluorescent tubes in place of bulbs to save electricity.
(ix) Take stairs and avoid using lifts.
(x) During winters, wear an extra sweater to avoid using heaters.

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