Question 1. Select the correct word from the following list and fill the blanks.
float, water, crop, nutrients, preparation

(a) The same kind of plants grown and cultivated on a large scale at a place is called ——-.
(b) The first step before growing crop is —————- of soil.
(c) Damaged seeds would ————- on top of water.
(d) For growing crop, sufficient sunlight and ——— and ——— and from the soil are essential.
Solution :
(a) Crop
(b) Preparation
(c) Float
(d) Water, nutrients

Question 2. Match items in column A with those in column B.

          (i) Kharif crop          (a) Urea and super phosphate
          (ii) Rabi crops          (b) Animal excreta, cow dung, urine and Plant wastes.
          (iii) Chemical fertilsers          (c) Wheat, gram, pea
          (iv) Organic manure          (d) Paddy and maize.

Solution :


Question 3. Explain the below-given terms.
(a)Soil preparation
Solution :
(a) Soil preparation : The basic step before the cultivation of a crop is the preparation of the soil. It involves loosening the soil resulting in deeper penetration. This process increases the growth of several microbial organisms, earthworms etc, which enrich the soil with humus and other essential nutrients of the soil. Tilling of soil brings the rich nutrients of the soil to the top surface. Basically, plants require nutrients for their proper growth and functioning. The process of loosening the soil is called tilling or ploughing the soil. Ploughing takes place with the help of a bull and an appropriate equipment. This helps the plants to utilize completely,the nutrients obtained for their growth.
ncert solution
(b) Threshing : It is the process of separating the grains or seeds from chaff. This process takes place after the harvesting of the crop. It generally takes place in a  machine known as ‘Combine’. This machine is a combination of both harvester and thresher. It cleans the harvested grains before our usage.
(c) Sowing : Sowing is an important process in the production of crops. The process of placing the seed in the soil for the growth of the plants is sowing. The seed selection is important for better growth of the plant. The net production of the crop (i.e) yield is improved through sowing. It is done traditionally by a tool or a seed drill. The tool is funnel shaped which was used traditionally for seed sowing in the soil. Nowadays, seed sowing is done through a tractor (ie)  by the usage of seed drills. The seed is dispersed uniformly in the soil through this tool and seeds sown at  a particular depth. This new method of sowing is time-saving and also ensures seed protection from the birds.

ncert solution
(d) Weeding :Unwanted plants that grow together with the main crops are called as weeds. The process of removing (or) disposing of these weeds is said to be weeding. E.g  Xanthium, Parthenium. Weeds grow along with the crops competing with them for light and good nutrients.  Due to this, the main crop plants gets fewer nutrients, light and space for their growth. (ie) the total nutrient is shared among the unwanted weeds. This reduces the yield of the crop. Various methods of weeding are carried out. The commonly carried out methods of weeding are as follows:
(i)The weeds can be completely controlled by the usage of weedicides which is a powerful chemical sprayed on the crops in the fields to destroy all the unwanted weeds. This chemical is not toxic to the crops.
(ii)The tilling process that takes place before the sowing of crops helps in the removal of unwanted weeds. It is good to remove the weeds before the production of flowers and the seeds.
(iii)Removal of weeds manually takes place through khurpi which involves regular cutting of weeds or uprooting weeds which are closer to the ground.

Question 4. Give two examples of each.
(a) Kharif crop
(b) Rabi crop

Solution :
(a) Kharif crops are those which are grown in rainy season. For example – Cotton, groundnut.
(b) Rabi crops are those which are grown in winter season. For example – Wheat, mustard.

Question  5. Explain how fertilsers are different from manure.
Solution :
ncert solution

Question 6. What is irrigation? Describe two methods of irrigation which conserve water.
Solution : Irrigation is the process by which water is supplied to crops at different intervals. The time and frequency of irrigation varies according to different seasons, crops, and soil types. There are various sources of irrigation such as wells, canals, rivers, dams, ponds, and lakes.
Two methods of irrigation which help in conservation of water are :
(i) Sprinkler system : This system is more useful on uneven land, having fewer water supplies. In this method, water is supplied using pipes to one or more central locations within the field. When water is allowed to flow under high pressure with the help of a pump, it gets sprinkled on the crops.
(ii) Drip system: In this system, water is delivered at or near the roots of plants, drop by drop. This is the most efficient method of irrigation as there is no wastage of water at all. This method is important in areas where water availability is poor.

Question 7. If wheat is sown in the kharif season, what would happen? Discuss.
Solution : Wheat is a Rabi crop, hence it requires cold climatic conditions to be grown properly. If it is sown in the Kharif season (June- October), it will not grow or may get destroyed due to excessive rains in the Kharif season because of many factors such as lack of optimum temperature, adaptability, availability of pests, etc. Therefore, wheat crop should not be sown during this season.

Question 8. Explain how soil gets affected by the continuous plantation of crop in a field.
Solution : Soil supplies mineral nutrients to the crop. These nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, etc. are essential for the growth of plants. Continuous growing of crops in the same field makes the soil poorer in certain nutrients. This makes the soil infertile. And then, to replenish the soil with nutrients farmers need to add manures to the soil.

Question 9. Arrange the following boxes in proper order to make a flow chart of sugarcane crop production.
NCERT Solutions for Class 8th Science
Solution : Flow chart of sugarcane crop production
NCERT Solutions for Class 8th Science

Question 10. Complete the following word puzzle with the help of clues given below.

1.Providing water to the crops.
2.Keeping crop grains for a long time under proper conditions.
5.Certain plants of the same kind grown on a large scale.
3.A machine used for cutting the matured crop.
4.A rabi crop that is also one of the pulses.
6.A process of separating the grain from chaff.

ncert solution
Solution :

ncert solution

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Get 30% off your first purchase!

error: Content is protected !!
Scroll to Top