NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Social science Chapter 9 – Urban Livelihoods

Page No 84:

Question 1:

Read and discuss the following description of the living conditions of workers who come to the labour chowk.

Most workers that we find at the labour chowk cannot afford permanent accommodation and so sleep on pavements near the chowk, or they pay Rs 6 a night for a bed at a nearby shelter run by the Municipal Corporation. To compensate for the lack of security, local tea and cigarette shops function as banks, moneylenders and safety lockers, all rolled into one. Most workers leave their tools at these shops for the night for safekeeping, and pass on extra money to them. The shopkeepers keep the money safely and also offer loans to labourers in need.

Source: Aman Sethi, Hindu On-line


The living conditions of the labourers as presented in the given paragraph put forward a very bleak picture. Most of the labourers who come to the labour chowk do not have a permanent accommodation because their incomes do not allow them to afford one. Sleeping on pavements is a desperate measure though not a good and safe option. Since most of these workers would be daily wage earners, they cannot always afford spending Rs 6 per night for sleeping in the night shelter run by the government. Borrowing money from local cigarette and tea shops is not a good option as these would be charging exorbitant amount of interest for very small sums of money. One can sum up by saying that the given paragraph is successful in showing us the adverse conditions that these labourers survive in order to live their lives one day at a time.

Hence, it is imperative that the government took significant measures to provide these people with proper accommodation and living conditions.

Page No 85:

Question 2:

Complete the following table and discuss how their work is different.

NamePlace of workEarningsSecurity of workBenefits receivedWork on their own or employed
Bachchu ManjhiRs 100 a day
Harpreet, VandanaWork on their own
NirmalaNo security
SudhaCompanyRs 30,000 p.m.


NamePlace of workEarningsSecurity of workBenefits receivedWork on their own or employed
Bachchu ManjhiBus stopRs 100 a dayNo securityNoneWorks on his own
Harpreet, VandanaReadymade garments showroom2-3 lakhs p.m.Have licence to do businessProfitsWork on their own
NirmalaGarment factoryRs 80 a day +Rs 40 extra for working lateNo securityNoneEmployed
SudhaCompanyRs 30,000 p.m.Job securitySavings for old age,Paid holidays,Medical facilitiesEmployed

Page No 85:

Question 3:

In what ways is a permanent and regular job different from a casual job? Discuss.


The following table lists the differences between a permanent/regular job and a casual job.

Permanent/Regular JobCasual Job
Job securityNo job security
Fixed working hoursWorking hours unfixed
Regular monthly salaryIrregular wages
Form a part of the organised labourForm a part of the unorganised labour
BenefitsNo benefits

Page No 85:

Question 4:

What benefits does Sudha get along with her salary?


Apart from a regular salary every month, Sudha gets the following benefits.

(i) Savings for old age: A part of her salary is kept in a government fund on which she earns regular interest. She can utilise this money when she retires.

(ii) Paid holidays: She gets leave on Sundays and national holidays. She also gets some days as annual leave. She gets medical leave if she falls ill.

(iii) Medical facilities: Her company pays the medical expenses up to a certain amount for her and her family members.

Page No 85:

Question 5:

Fill in the following table to show the services provided by people in the markets which you visit frequently.

Name of the shop or officeNature of the service provided


Name of the shop or officeNature of the service provided
Khanna StoresSelling groceries
Dwinkle OpticalsMaking and repairing spectacles
Roxy Dry CleanersDry cleaning
Bindra CablesCable operator
Bangla Sweet HouseBakery

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