What Do Different Food Items Contain?


Food is a basic requirement for all living organisms. It provides energy for carrying out normal physiological activities. There are different components and they have different nutrients. They all come together to provide wholesome nourishment to us.

For Example:

  • Dal, eggs, meat etc contain proteins.
  • Fruits and vegetables contain vitamins.
  • Cereals, pulses, and oats contain predominantly carbohydrates.
  • Oil, ghee, butter, cheese, pork, chocolates, lard and cream contains fat.
Components of Food

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What Do Different Food Items Contains

What Do Various Nutrients Do for Our Body?


Carbohydrates are present mostly as starch. They provide us with energy and are thus energy-giving food.

Wheat, Potato, Rice etc. are good sources of carbohydrates.

Iodine Test for Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates present in all food items are tested by the Iodine test. A few drops of dilute iodine solution are added to the sample food item. If the colour changes from brown to blue-black, the presence of starch is confirmed.

Iodine test for the presence of Starch


Proteins are bodybuilding nutrients. They are needed to build every single part and organ of the body. They help in the growth and repair of our body.

Eggs, Meat, Lentils etc are good sources of proteins.

Test for Proteins

Proteins in the food sample are tested by copper sulfate and caustic soda solutions. The sample food item is made into very dilute paste and the above solutions are added to it. If the colour of the resulting solution changes to purple, the presence of protein is confirmed.

Test for Protein


Fats are high-energy nutrients. They are needed in a moderate amount by the body. Fats are the reserved food material of our body.

Oils, ghee, butter etc are the sources of fat.

Test for Fats

Fats in the food are tested by a simple paper test. A little amount of sample food is wrapped in a paper and crushed. If the paper gets an oily patch, the presence of fat in the food is confirmed.

Test for Fats


  • Fibres are materials that add bulk to the food.
  • Humans cannot use fibres as a nutrient.
  • But they help in the easy movement of the food along with the digestive system.

To know more about “What Do Various Nutrients Do for Our Body”, visit the links below;

Deficiency Diseases

Balanced Diet

  • A balanced diet is a diet that has all the necessary nutrients in the amount that is needed for normal body functioning.
Balanced Diet

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Balanced Diet

Deficiency Diseases

  • Deficiency diseases are caused by the lack of certain nutrients.
  • These diseases can be treated by a properly balanced diet.
  • If the body is deficient in vitamins we get vitamin deficiency diseases.
  • E.g. scurvy, pellagra, Rickets etc.
  • If minerals are deficient, then we get mineral deficiency diseases.
  • E.g. iron deficiency leads to anaemia, phosphorus deficiency leads to weak bones and teeth.
Vitamins and MineralsDeficiency DiseasesSymptoms
Vitamin-ANight blindnessPoor vision or complete loss of vision in darkness
Vitamin-B1Beri-beriWeight loss and weak muscle
Vitamin-CScurvyBleeding gums
Vitamin-DRicketsSoft, tender and weak bones
Vitamin ECrohn’s diseasePale skin and Rapid aging
Vitamin-KHaemorrhageExcessive bleeding with delay in clotting
CalciumOsteomalacia and osteoporosisBrittle bones
PhosphorusBad teeth, and RicketsTwisted limbs, unformed teeth
IronAnaemiaLow red blood cell count
IodineGoitreEnlarged thyroid gland

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Deficiency Diseases

Food Sources


  • Vitamins are the essential nutrients that help us in maintaining normal body functions and also to fight off infections.
  • Fruits and vegetables are the major sources of vitamins.
  • Vitamins also keep our eyes, bones, teeth, gums and skin healthy.
  • A, B complex, C, D, E and K are the vitamins we get from different foods.
VitaminFunctions of Vitamin
Vitamin-AKeeps eyes and skin healthy
Vitamin-B1Helps the body use energy from the food we eat
Vitamin-CHelp heal wounds, maintains healthy gums and blood vessels, fights infections
Vitamin-DKeeps teeth and bones healthy
Vitamin EMaintains healthy skin and hair, slows down ageing, a powerful antioxidant
Vitamin-KAn important factor in blood clotting, bone healing and body repair


  • Minerals are important substances that help your body form and function on many different levels.
  • Minerals are essential for various metabolic functions including growth and organ functioning.
  • Important minerals required for our body are sodium, potassium, calcium, zinc, iron, phosphorus, magnesium etc.

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